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Welcome to Croatia, and to the 11th Networked Learning Conference

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Monday, May 14
 

11:30am

Registration
Monday May 14, 2018 11:30am - 12:30pm
Ban Jelacic Reception Hall Hotel Dubrovnik, Zagreb

12:00pm

Lunch
Monday May 14, 2018 12:00pm - 12:45pm
Centrum Hall Hotel Dubrovnik, Zagreb

12:45pm

Welcome
Monday May 14, 2018 12:45pm - 1:00pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

1:00pm

Opening Plenary - Rebundling higher education in an age of inequality
As blended learning and digitisation increasingly characterise emergent forms of teaching and learning provision in higher education, the sector is also being shaped by changing relationships, unbundling in multiple forms and marketization. This talk will describe the confluence of these trends, consider whose interests are being served as rebundled forms come into being and focus on the implications for addressing access and equity in an age of inequality.


Monday May 14, 2018 1:00pm - 2:00pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

2:00pm

Refreshments
Monday May 14, 2018 2:00pm - 2:30pm
Ban Jelacic Reception Hall Hotel Dubrovnik, Zagreb

2:30pm

Symposium 1 Introduction - What will e-Teaching be like in a future networked university?
As the 21st century unfolds, researchers in higher education, and especially in networked learning, are attempting to peer into the future to better understand the integration of educational technology in light of current trends and future needs. Although a fair amount of research has shed light on learner needs in networked learning (Hodgson & McConnell, 2016; Jandric & Boras, 2015; Hodgson, de Laat, McConnell, & Ryberg , 2014; Jones, 2015), not so much is known about faculty/professors needs and workload (Bentley & Kyvik, 2013; Jonker & Hicks, 2014). Indeed, reports that do come in often deal more with faculty resistance to online and blended learning (Chapman, 2011) than an exploration of the realities faculty face at a time of increasing needs, increasing enrolments, and, overall, an increasing workload in their research-, teaching- and service- related components. Networking is and has been a given in research pursuits among academics for a very long time. The roving scholar in medieval times is an early example of a slowing expanding network of erudition which, gradually, has come to embrace the entire planet, forming, in fact if not in form, a world university system. Yet teaching networks are rarer, especially e-teaching networks (Donnelly & McSweeney, 2010), despite initiatives such as MOOCs which held the promise of sharing knowledge on large networked learning deployments. So, little is actually known about how faculty are harnessing technology to improve their teaching and make it more manageable as a contending priority to research, about how they integrate technology into this part of their workload and what kind of difficulties they face in trying to do so (Power & Morven-Gould, 2011). More to the point, we wonder if e-teaching-based networks and communities of practice are emerging among academics. In an exploration of these issues, this symposium will provide an overview of how faculty networking can apply to e-teaching, and what problematics are embedded in e-teaching. Furthermore, it will look closely at ICT deployment, and online and blended learning as they affect e-teaching. Finally, it will provide a case study based on a networked program approach, documenting the context and its attendant specificities, the actual program replanning required in light of emerging needs, and the new e-teaching practices implemented by faculty. Of special interest to our group is the e-teaching role of the academic as a catalyst in the networking process. Examining how educational leaders use digital networks, Jones, Ferraday & Hodgson stated (2007): "The posts occupied by such workers are often isolated and the use of digital networks has been suggested as a way of developing forms of cooperation and community". Indeed, in higher education, many faculty experience one form or another of isolation and, were it not for their use of networking technologies, they would be virtually disconnected from their respective, far-flung scientific peers. Yet this potential for isolation present, to a degree, in the research realm, is dwarfed by that which faculty experience when it comes to their teaching. To quote Katz (2008): "In scientific research, however, and increasingly in social science and humanities research, IT’s role has been transformational", whereas, "With respect to higher education’s administrative and teaching activities, IT has perhaps not fulfilled its promise to the extent witnessed in some other sectors of the economy. Here, the handicraft traditions of teaching and learning in the academy have, as Trow suggests, “conditioned and constrained IT use”. Indeed, at some colleges and universities, good instructional technology is viewed as a barrier—or even antithetical—to good instruction. Change is slow" (p. xi). We would venture that it is not only slow, it usually occurs within a vacuum of interest, as research, the primary task for which faculty are generally hired, continues to dominate academic life. E-Teaching in Online Learning has usually meant switching from oral exposition to the written word, and merging traditional teaching techniques and modern technological ways of communication. Yet there are indications, insufficiently documented, that faculty are slowly adapting to the rush online by reasserting their role of knowledge developer rather than simple information purveyor through a more judicious and knowledgeable technology selection. Are we seeing the second generation of online learning appearing on the horizon? Perhaps. The goal of this symposium is thus to explore faculty e-teaching problematics and practices in utilizing the wide range of advanced technological capabilities from both the theoretical to the applied perspectives, and at various levels, from macroscopic to microscopic considerations in order to better understand where we are and where we are headed.

Speakers

Monday May 14, 2018 2:30pm - 2:35pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

2:30pm

Toward theorizing spatial-cultural ‘othering’ in networked learning and teaching practices
In response to networked learning community members’ calls for theorizing the underpinning causes of “othering,” this paper examines the concepts of transculturalism, boundary crossing, and third spaces to provide insights into cultural issues that can occur within networked learning environments. Suggestions are made for working from a transcultural perspective, working within and across boundaries, and teaching and learning in Third Space. We begin by examining challenges posed by increasing cultural diversities among learners in universities and then focus on how these challenges play out for both learners and tutors. In particular, we focus on issues that impact international learners who remain in their home contexts, but engage in university learning via networked learning opportunities. In the introduction, we discuss the complexities learners face when they are simultaneously “land-locked” within their own cultural and educational settings and being acculturated into new learning opportunities in a foreign university. We then draw upon transcultural scholarship to examine instances of encountering vulnerability and instability and possibilities for shifting conversations within teaching and learning contexts first to celebrating difference and then to negotiating potential academic consequences of acknowledgements of differences. We move on to discuss tensions that arise from boundary crossings that evoke discontinuities. In particular, we examine points of exclusion and inclusion where decisions are made about whose voice is heard and whose knowledge is deemed valid and relevant. Within our discussion of the complexities and tensions of boundary crossings, we draw upon the concepts of identification, coordination, reflection, and transformation. At this point, we introduce Third Space theory as a meeting point for recognizing tensions, but also problematize provision of a restrictive definition of a Third Space with a view to maintaining an open approach to theorizing spatiality that retains sufficient flexibility to propose practices that can lead to overcoming otherness. Within this context, we examine dialogical collaborative spaces where individuals share values, meanings and priorities, but also acknowledge Third Spaces as spaces as potential sites for encountering antagonism, conflict and incommensurability: tension-filled messy sites of seemingly insurmountable cultural difference and competing powers. We conclude with implications for theorizing otherness in networked learning practices.

Speakers
DN

Dorothea Nelson

PhD Student/Research Assistant, University of Calgary


Monday May 14, 2018 2:30pm - 2:55pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Transculturalism,border crossings,Third Spaces,theorizing our practices

2:30pm

Teachers' experiences using networked technologies for teaching
At a given Maltese Higher Education complex there is increasing drive to encourage teaching academics to incorporate networked technologies in their teaching therefore expanding face-to-face campus-based education to blended and online provision. This paper reports on research findings of an explorative study investigating variation in academics' accounts of their experiences using networked technologies for teaching in this local context. Twenty-seven participating academics were purposively chosen from different faculties, institutes, centres and colleges. The sample was also balanced in terms of tenure, ranking, gender and age. Phenomenographic analysis of interview transcript data led to a configuration made up of 5 hierarchically inclusive categories describing the act of using networked technologies for teaching as: (i) Accumulating subject content for passing on to students for learning; (ii) Motivating and accommodating students to understand subject content in learning; (iii) Building a positive teacher-student rapport in extending students' learning; (iv) Modelling behaviour inspiring students to exploratory learning; (v) Fostering a community of learners participating and convening in dialogic learning. These categories of description are also configured as structurally threaded by three critical themes of expanding awareness including perceived affordances of networked technologies for teaching, human roles in teaching, and teaching pedagogic strategy. This phenomenographic description suggests a watershed between the third and fourth categories going from the incorporation of networked technologies in teaching activity for their auxiliary capacity for learning - teaching as transmission (of subject knowledge, of understanding, of empathy), to the incorporation of networked technologies as a seamless facet of teaching activity - teaching as participation (in exploratory learning, in dialogic learning). This description of variation in teachers' accounts of their experiencing using networked technologies for teaching confirms previous research but also adds new detail and insight. Besides, the resultant configuration projected as an emergent progression of expanding awareness is reckoned a means for positively inspiring network enhanced development of teaching practices. The thinking about variation in teachers' experiences as promoted by this research is potentially a means to encourage and facilitate the professional development of teaching academics steering away from pressure for change. Potentially it evokes a constructive outward view in the attempt to support best practices in HE teaching.

Speakers

Monday May 14, 2018 2:30pm - 2:55pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words teacher experience, networked technologies, teaching, phenomenography, higher education

2:30pm

Workshop 1 - Designing, deploying, and studying internationally networked collaboration: The Trans-Atlantic and Pacific Project (TAPP) model
Intended Audience This workshop is intended for a broad audience: Researchers, instructors, administrators, i.e., all those interested in integrating international networked collaboration for building intercultural competence. Workshop Description Members of today’s diverse and global workforce increasingly perform their work as part of cross-cultural virtual teams (CCVTs). CCVTs are those teams connected via technology and comprised of people in various locations around the globe whose primary objective of virtual collaboration is to launch, develop, and complete its assigned task. In addition to discipline and technical knowledge, today’s working professionals need cross-cultural competence. As the majority of students will be expected to work effectively on CCVTs, it is imperative to include collaborative work on realistic projects as a means to develop language skills, project management skills, application of specialized skills and knowledge, and intercultural competence. Over the past 18 years, the Trans-Atlantic & Pacific Project (TAPP) has connected 29 universities in 16 countries on four continents, linking writing classes to usability testing and translation studies classes in collaborative projects. TAPP’s main aim is to share insights into collaborative writing across borders and cultures, and, in the course of this work, to gain intercultural competence. The network of partners participating in TAPP establishes links between students in different countries so that each learns from the other. In so doing, students become aware of the diversity of the world community in which their documents travel. The purpose of this workshop is to guide attendees in learning how to join TAPP or to design and run collaborative global virtual collaborative projects on their own. Presenters will share research and practice that addresses the structural, relational, interactional, and technological components of TAPP projects, with emphasis on the study of intercultural competence developed as a result of student global virtual collaboration. Participants will design an international collaborative project based on the TAPP model; this will include how to run and gain support for international collaborative projects in a political environment of rising nationalism. Participant Engagement Participants will engage with four main activities: 1. Discussion of goals for international collaborative projects followed by an overview of TAPP guiding principles as well as components for understanding how to construct and run a TAPP project (structural, relational, interactional, and technological); 2. Small group work (representing at least two institutions) to design a TAPP type project for students across their institutions; 3. Review of research and collaborative development of research methods for use in studying intercultural competence; and 4. Articulation of next steps and support associated with student international networked collaborative work. Participant Outcomes Each participant will ● Gain an understanding of the TAPP model as a way to design and run CCVT projects; ● Evaluate the structural, relational, interactional, and technological possibilities as part of international collaboration; ● Design a TAPP-modelled project for students across multiple institutions; ● Consider directions for development of methods for use in studying the development of intercultural competence; ● Articulate next steps that includes a possible timeline and support associated with this work.


Monday May 14, 2018 2:30pm - 4:15pm
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

2:35pm

Symposium 1 Paper 1 - Using Philosophy of Information to look at teaching, technology and networked learning
The first presenter starts this panel presentation with a theoretical look at e-teaching from the standpoint of Floridi’s philosophy as it relates to the development of networked relationships between faculty and technology, and the impact of "transdiegetisation" on the classroom. He further looks forward in time at reconciling the role of human intelligence with that of artificial intelligence in e-teaching.

Speakers

Monday May 14, 2018 2:35pm - 3:00pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

2:55pm

Laugh with us, not at us: parody and networked learning
In keeping with its theme, this paper has a light touch and a serious point. It arose from a concern that networked learning may not be recognisable enough to be parodied. Parody is a pervasive and ubiquitous cultural practice that entails imitation and laughter – features which could perhaps contribute to making networked learning knowable to a wider community. Despite parody’s potential for serious damage, its broadest use supports the recognition, consolidation, development and renewal of a genre or movement. Drawing on Bakhtinian notions of the dialogic and carnival, as well as the light thrown on contemporary discourse through Bakhtin’s literary insights, the paper explores the extent to which networked learning artefacts and practices engage in parody and have been parodied. A thought experiment to parody a networked learning conference paper led to the current paper’s structure. This attempt to parody highlights the difficulties of departing from conventional academic genres even in a field of study that challenges those genres. The study identifies how themes of genre, intertextuality and multimodality combine in papers and events about networked learning to produce texts and practices that are open to renewal, hacking and augmentation, but without the need for the laughter that comes with parody that might have the same results. In papers and book chapters, although there are lively forms of writing, heavy use of citation is the main source of intertextuality. Evidence of parody was found in a symposium, including (self) parody of networked learning conference practices, suggesting that we are more likely to find parody during synchronous events than in peer reviewed academic texts. An almost accidental result of the parodied structure of the paper suggests that networked learning could be developing in a way that parallels Bakhtin’s understanding of the novel, yet without the cultural work that parody has contributed to the novel. This line of reasoning brings into sharper focus one of the key features of this author’s own initial parody of networked learning: its emphasis on boundaries and boundary crossing. It seems that networked learning, like the novel, cannot be parodied as a ‘complete’ form: like the novel it is constantly changing to reflect its contemporary world.


Monday May 14, 2018 2:55pm - 3:20pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words carnival, dialogue, genre, intertextuality, multimodality

2:55pm

Domesticating Everyday Technologies for Teaching
The complexity of technology integration into the teaching and learning practices of higher education students and instructors is not adequately captured in technology adoption models. Technologies are shaped not only by faculty as they integrate these tools into their teaching, but by students in their learning. Studies examining technology integration tend to take the classroom as the beginning and ending point for technology integration; however, beliefs, values, expectations, and experiences of technology begin long before the classroom. This study takes these experiences into account, exploring university faculty understanding of social media for teaching through the lens of domestication theory.
Domestication theory (Berker, Harmann, Punie & Ward, 2006; Haddon, 2011; Silverstone & Hirsch, 1992) draws on family studies, media consumption studies and studies of the social construction of technology to examine the confluence of the social meanings and political structures of the home as technology become integrated into domestic practices. This study uses the domestication framework to explore how values, beliefs, and experiences of social media and of teaching shape the decision-making processes of instructors as they integrate these everyday communication platforms into their courses. The domestication framework traces the trajectory of a technology from the point at which it enters the home through the social processes of domestication. The first stage is appropriation, in which the imagined uses for the technology lead someone to bring it home. The dual processes of objectification and incorporation describe the ways in which an individual or a group integrates a new technology into the physical arrangements and everyday routines of the household. It is through these negotiations that values and beliefs about everyday practice and the role of the technology become apparent. Finally, conversion, in which newfound practices and technologies are displayed, begins the process of appropriation for others.
Twelve university faculty were interviewed about their decision-making and experiences as they integrated social media into their teaching practices. Participants had varying levels of experience with social media prior to their decision to use social media in their teaching.
Analysis using the domestication framework suggests that the everyday experiences with technology outside the classroom affect the approach to integrating new technology into teaching. The domestication framework provided a valuable lens for teasing out the social and material beliefs inherent in the negotiation processes in which both instructors and students engage as technology is introduced into the classroom.

Speakers

Monday May 14, 2018 2:55pm - 3:20pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Technology adoption, Domestication Theory, Sociomateriality, Higher Education

3:00pm

Symposium 1 Paper 2 - E-Teaching: An Essential Prerequisite for Networked E-Learning
The second presenter highlights the problematics of ignoring e-teaching in the relevant literature dealing with e-learning, examines the main reasons for the reluctance of academic faculty to use the digital technologies more fully in their teaching, and suggests how to enhance efficient and effective e-teaching in academia. She explores its application in the lives of academics who are, for the most part, pedagogically untrained, unsupported, especially unincentivised, and suggests the role university leaders must play in changing that.


Monday May 14, 2018 3:00pm - 3:25pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

3:20pm

Knowledgeability and modes of identification in (dis)embodied boundary practice in networked learning.
Building on a continued interest in boundaries and boundary practice in relation to ICT-based networked learning (Ryberg & Sinclair, 2016), this paper addresses the issue of knowledgeability and identification through (dis)embodiment in design for boundary practice in networked learning. According to Goodyear (2015) teaching is about designing opportunities for people to learn, and from a learning perspective, how participants respond to design through their practices and through their use of boundary objects is interesting. Inspired by Wenger-Trayner & Wenger-Trayner’s (2015) concepts of knowledgeability and modes of identification, we analyse how two different case studies conducted at the Danish online Master programme on ICT and Learning (MIL) differ with regard to potential boundary practice and use of boundary objects.
In study I, the design for learning was based on a 2D virtual learning environment (Dirckinck-Holmfeld, 2006), whereas the design for learning in study II was based on a 3D virtual world (Riis, 2016). Carlile (2002; 2004) proposed a hierarchical typology for boundary objects aiming at transfer, translation and transformation, and in our analysis, we identify examples of such boundary objects in the two learning arenas. Our findings show that all identified categories of boundary objects can mediate knowledge according to the typology. Nonetheless, certain boundary objects in the 3D learning arena (study II), in particular the avatar, seem to promote a different kind of embodied transformation, which has implications for identity formation of the participants. Furthermore, the 3D virtual space affords a concrete materialised, albeit virtual, opportunity for reification, which is different to that of the 2D environment.
In the paper, we will elaborate on these differences, and based on the two case studies we propose that boundaries in networked learning should not only be regarded as socio-cultural differences, but as socio-material differences and dependencies as well. In particular, the materiality of a 3D virtual arena and avatars provides new relational and performative opportunities in networked learning.


Monday May 14, 2018 3:20pm - 3:45pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words networked_learning, sociocultural, sociomaterial, boundary_objects, embodiment, identity

3:20pm

Interactive Digital Learning in a University Lecture Room
This article examines modern methods for higher education digital pedagogy in a lecture room. Over the last ten years, technology has changed lecturing in many different ways. Most of the students entering the university are in their twenties and therefore are seen as experienced in, and capable of, utilizing modern tools for communication. The research data for this paper was drawn up from two university courses which utilized several digital tools alongside other traditional lecture room teaching methods. The essential purpose of this paper is to increase understanding of students' habits and needs concerning digital media use during the lectures. Course teachers have numerous ways to engage the students in the lecture situation, and during the course. Although educational technology is available, with low costs for mobile devices and Internet browser environments, the traditional face-to-face discussions are still relevant. Learning goals should define the expectations which are placed on the different tools. Course teachers should also be reminded that tool registration, as well as trial tests, are time-consuming. In addition, their operation in a teaching situation might require robust guidance or teaching assistants. This paper especially examines five tools for lecture/course activation - image wall, web-based voting, small group discussions, project blogs and online video.
According to the results, students can be extremely active users of digital tools and media in some fields and yet uninterested in other uses of digital resources. 28 out of 30 respondents had a mobile device with them, but less than half felt the device was suitable and natural for lecture activities. Even if the students have a mobile device while attending the lecture room, a majority of them find teacher-guided digital activities laborious and extraneous. 26 respondents would participate in the lectures whether or not the recordings are available. All university students may need technical support, for discussions, and with enthusiasm for the use of educational technology, regardless of their age or whether they own a mobile device. Learning cannot be outsourced to discussion forums or blog platforms, but they can serve as excellent resources for learning community communication and as support for the learning process.

Speakers

Monday May 14, 2018 3:20pm - 3:45pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Digital media, Interactive tools, Digital Natives, Mobile Learning

3:25pm

Symposium 1 Paper 3 - Networking educational administrators through e-Teaching
The third presenters provide a case study dealing with faculty problem-solving in order to adapt existing networked learning practices in order to address their particular e-teaching needs while respecting their time limits within a larger reflection on the future of e-teaching at a dual-mode university.


Monday May 14, 2018 3:25pm - 3:50pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

3:45pm

21century learning skills revisited - a conceptual paper on leaving 'gaps' and going deep.
Abstract
This paper revisits the 21st-century learning skills (21CLS) and discusses the need to leave 'gaps' in the curriculum while pursuing chosen topics more in-depth. The paper suggests ways to choose both 'gaps' and in-depth topics; furthermore, the paper investigates relevant technologies for bridging the gaps and for going deep. The paper discusses the connection between 'Das Exemplarische Prinzip' (exemplary teaching) and what may be interpreted to be the initial thoughts behind the formulation of the 21CLS presented in the document 'A Nation at Risk'. The two concepts are separated by three decades (1951 'Tübinger resolution -1981 'A Nation at Risk'). However, they share the same conviction that not every bit of knowledge available can be taught/learned and, furthermore, that some knowledge is more important than other. We wish to revisit this notion because we believe that the advances in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and the automation of increasingly complex processes in our everyday lives will influence education. This indicates that we may need to adjust the topic- and activity-selection principles that teachers and curriculum developers deploy to select what to teach and what to outsource to networked learning and digital learning materials. The discourse of the 21CLS seems to have materialised into a specific practice in Denmark, a practice that embraces programming exercises (Dot/Dash, LEGO Mindstorms, Scratch, Python etc.), tinkering with electronics, playing computer games, 3D printing and Laser cutting in workshops called 'Maker spaces'. The 21CLS, in a Danish context, are distilled into; Collaboration, Critical Thinking, Creativity, Communication (the 4Cs). In our research and in the development projects in schools we have taken part in, we have the positive experience that the way the 21CLS are practiced in a Danish context gave some pupils a sense of pride in their products and that some pupils acted more as designers of solutions for real problems than as pupils doing school work. On a more negative note, the 21CLS activities may come across as isolated events with little connection to curriculum or exams. Finally, we raise the discussion of how Teacher Education can develop a practice that incorporates the convictions of the 21CLS in other ways. We suggest a focus on technology that supports dialogue and reflection and bridges both knowledge 'gaps' and time and space 'gaps'. Furthermore, we suggest learning designs that revisit 21CLS as a framework for learning to learn.


Monday May 14, 2018 3:45pm - 4:10pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words 21 century learning skills,Teacher Education,Educational Dialogue,Learning Designs

3:45pm

Understanding the variation in MBA students' experiences of using Learning Technology in Pakistan
Today, technology is increasingly being viewed as a key resource for enabling innovation within teaching and learning approaches. Social media platforms and applications such as Facebook and Twitter, WhatsApp, Skype and Viber have emerged as one of the most popular mechanisms for developing the social perspective in learning. Some recent studies even refer to this phenomenon as the development of a ‘parallel infrastructure’ to institutional offerings such as Moodle. However, when any artefact (such as technology), is introduced into a learning environment, there is a possibility that it will be responded to and utilised in different ways. This paper presents the initial analysis from MBA students’ experiences of using learning technology within their studies in a Pakistani business school, to see if technology has any impact on the learning approaches, in terms of the way and the purpose for which it is being used. Phenomenographic analysis revealed some initial categories of description, which include ‘access to learning materials and other information sources’, ‘organisation of course-related activities’, ‘improved communication and connectivity’, ‘developing cooperation and collaboration’ and ‘means of overcoming socio-cultural barriers’. The degree of variation within these categories can be related to the established concepts of deep and surface level approach. For example, there were students who preferred to use technology ‘as and when required’ by their teachers, and within the same environment there were others, who appeared to take a 'deep level' approach that involved some critical thinking about the use of technology and its subsequent influence on learning approaches. Our analysis highlights that students in relatively less developed regions are also making efforts to change themselves from ‘passive recipients’ of knowledge to active participants, who can support the learning activities of each other, using diverse forms of technology. We argue that while students may be developing an ‘alternative or parallel infrastructure to their institutional offerings’, there is no disconnect between them. It is this blend in using different forms of technology, which is encouraging the students to develop ‘informal networks’ among themselves – in an environment, which is majorly instructor-led. However, for addressing a possible 'dis(connect)' in students' use of various forms of technology, there is still a need for educators to ‘temper’ the enthusiasm of students, to develop a better understanding of how they should interact with technology, as this may provide some new insights for networked learning.

Speakers
avatar for Ahmad Timsal

Ahmad Timsal

Doctoral Researcher, Lancaster University


Monday May 14, 2018 3:45pm - 4:10pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Collaboration, Communication, Experiences, Informal Networks, Learning Technology, Pakistan

3:50pm

Symposium 1 Plenary
Monday May 14, 2018 3:50pm - 4:15pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

4:15pm

The relationship between age, technology acceptance model and grades obtained in the training of professional emergency services
This contribution reports on findings from a study on firefighters’ grades obtained in technology-supported training courses in Catalonia. The role of firefighters has changed dramatically over the past few years and will continue to do so as modernization progresses. This will have implications for everything associated with the service and in particular in relation to the type and delivery of basic training. The wider role of rescue work and the demands of community fire prevention require skills that need to be taught in a different manner. A review of current research concerning distance learning (Holmgren, 2015) and the use of digital technologies shows that there are few studies on firefighter training. This paper aims to describe and analyse the relationships between the firefighters’ age, the intention to use technology to learn and the grades obtained obtained in online training courses. To explain the influence of digital literacy on individuals’ intention to pursue online learning, we integrate the concept of digital literacy with the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (measured using the TAM2 questionnaire). Technology-supported distance learning is an increasingly common mode in practical professional training courses. In line with this development, campus-based firefighter training in Catalonia is implemented using a distance mode and blended courses. Data has been analysed from two courses carried out in a Moodle environment, one of which was delivered in a blended learning mode for aspiring firefighters and another was presented in e-learning mode for active firefighters with different levels of experience. The total number of participants was 247. The results obtained when analysing the variables of age, grade obtained and TAM2 scores show that there is no significant relationship between them. However, we have found a relationship in the case of the intention to use technology for learning and the grade obtained in the course. The results suggest that the acceptance and, therefore, the use of technology does not depend on the student’s age. We have found a positive relationship in the case of students on the Basic Training Course for Firefighters in the Intention to Use (IU), Perceived Usefulness (PU) and Voluntariness (V) scales referring to the grades they obtained.


Monday May 14, 2018 4:15pm - 4:40pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Firefighters, training, emergency services, e-learning, blended learning, TAM2

4:15pm

Designing for youth engagement across formal and informal learning networks
Growing up as part of a networked society is demanding youth’s active engagement in digital literacy practices – where their ability to find, evaluate, use, and create digital content is critical, as well as their ability to successfully participate in networks. Those with restrict access or those unable to effectively use technologies are unlikely to meaningfully contribute to a globalized world, with potential negative impact on individuals’ lives and on community prosperity. Understanding how to best design and encourage youth involvement in networked learning is therefore crucial. Drawing on the ACAD framework, this study examines the structural components of two learning networks geared at youth, within two learning scenarios: ‘in’ and ‘out’ of schools. By exploring the relationship between youth, tools, and spaces, we attempt to contribute to connect literature on formal and informal learning, digital culture and literacies. We also attempt to contribute to the call for understanding networked learning beyond the boundaries of Higher Education. Our research employs a case study methodology, conducted over consecutive weeks of a semester in two research sites: a year 10 classroom and a multiplayer online game called Potterworldmc. The asynchronous conversations of students on a social network site with learning purposes used at a school, as well as observations, interviews, and artefacts of a player were collected. The paper identifies key design elements and the emergent learning activity young people are engaging in, with a particular focus on digital literacy. We analyse the influence of social structures, tasks, tools and resources on youth activity, and discuss how previous boundaries between in-school and out-of-school, physical and digital spaces, traditional and new literacies might be rather blurred in learning networks geared at youth. We conclude by highlighting some key design elements across formal and informal networks.

Speakers

Monday May 14, 2018 4:15pm - 4:40pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words informal networked learning,digital literacy,design for networked learning,connected learning

4:15pm

Workshop 2 - Are you readieee? Taking the “eek” out of participating in fully online communities: Exploring Readiness using the Fully Online Learning Community (FOLC) Model
Intended Audience Individuals and institutions interested in taking a look at fully online learning with community supports; those interested in assessment tools that speak to the readiness for participation in fully online learning environments; those involved in the creation of supports required by institutions for students, faculty, institutional. Workshop Description This workshop will provide an overview of the theoretical underpinnings and description of the FOLC model and its component parts. Through small group activities, participants will examine and discuss propositional definitions for the FOLC components. Participants will complete the FOLCS online self-assessment instrument and discuss their experience with a focus on improving the FOLCS for global use. In addition, participants will examine the application of the FOLCS for use with their students as a component of determining readiness to moving into fully online learning environments. The workshop will conclude with an explanation of the global educational learning observatory (GELO) and its associated tool set will be shared and participants will be invited to join into this global research network. Participant Engagement Participants in small groups will discuss, propose definitions, experience the FOLCS and a variety of online tools associated with the GELO, and contribute to the evolution and refinement of theoretical descriptive and predictive models of contemporary online learning. Participant Outcomes Participants will examine and discuss: • what it means to be a fully online learner; • what does it mean to be working in community online in formal educational contexts; • ways to measure readiness; • collaborative research (GELO) approaches and tools to examine readiness, culture, competence (confidence and frequency of use of technology) and the impact of this in fully online learning environments.

Speakers

Monday May 14, 2018 4:15pm - 6:00pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

4:15pm

Workshop 3 - Pathways to openness in NWL research: the case of Open Data
Intended Audience

This workshop deals with the issue of Open Science, with a focus on applying Open Data to research in networked learning (NWL). The workshop targets both researchers and practitioners interested in the use of raw Open Data coming out of NWL research.

Workshop Description
Open Science is an approach promoted by the European Commission that has been developing internationally for about ten years. In the field of research on NWL, however, the difficulties for opening up research have led to intrinsic, ongoing debates. A subtle aspect of this situation relates the poor appropriation and utilisation of scientific research products in the pedagogical field by potential users (stakeholders in the education and training system). As a matter of fact, educational data extracted from Learning Management Systems and Social Networks pose ethical problems as well as data literacy challenges both for the researchers (making data readable and usable) and the end users (reading and using data). Therefore, the specific case of Open Data (a relevant and innovative part of the Open Science scheme) should be discussed as a resource for NWL research. Data produced in this field is not limited to educational data-mining procedures, but encompasses a variety of research methodologies that yield diversified types of data, which in time implicates diversified ways of treating, sharing, and using them. Learning some of these principles and tools, and discussing them in the context of our current practices as researchers in the field of NWL, could be a starting point toward unraveling problems and coordinating efforts for further action.
Accordingly, the workshop will be organised in two simple phases:
1- A conceptual introduction will provide the basis for understanding and discovering the principles, policy context, and existing practices relating to openness in overall research.
2- A “hands on” activity in which participants will apply the above concepts to their respective NWL practices and research; participants will discuss both practical and deontological implications of their findings.

Participant Engagement

Our approach to participant engagement will touch on multiple professional learning principles: significant knowledge that can be rapidly transferred to professional practice; reflection on prior knowledge and future practices; exploration of deontological positions; and the creation of a discipline/area of professional practice. While the workshop focuses on the participants’ specific experiences and attempts to promote their professional learning, its results could also be seen as a springboard for the research community of educational technologies and NWL to reflect upon and discuss the principles and application of Open Science.
Along the process, we will adopt self-diagnosis tools on Open Science, an automatic response system, and Social Media to collect data and share reflections that will be opened to the research community.
Participant Outcomes
The workshop will aim to discover, reflect upon, and achieve concrete instruments to apply an Open Science perspective in NWL research.


Monday May 14, 2018 4:15pm - 6:00pm
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

4:40pm

Understanding and Identifying Cognitive Load in Networked Learning
This paper considers cognitive load theory (CLT) in the context of networked learning (NL).  It aligns with NL practitioners' efforts to understand and eliminate barriers to learning in NL situations.  The ideas presented are based on the premise that by recognising and either minimising or eliminating instances of unnecessary cognitive load in NL situations educators can improve learners’ abilities to acquire and develop schema and, in doing so, educators can support learning in NL situations.  The presentation brings together current thinking in cognitive load theory and descriptions of key aspects of NL to identify and describe of potential instances of cognitive load experienced by networked learners.
The paper is structured in three main sections: The first section provides the background to our exploration of CLT in the context of NL.  It includes an overview of CLT and its development; an overview of NL; and a definition of the problem this paper seeks to address, namely, that NL situations include a number of instances of cognitive load which may not be present in other (e.g., face-to-face; on-campus) learning situations.  The second section explores common features of NL and identifies potential sources of cognitive load in NL situations.  It is organised according to key features of the 'architecture' of NL:  the learning environment; learning tasks and learner activity.  By identifying potential instances of cognitive load, the presentation provides a basis for, firstly, understanding cognitive load in NL; and, secondly, addressing it. Key sources of cognitive load referenced in this paper include the presentation of information in NL situations; the use of mediating technologies; the demands of managing information in connected environments; the load associated with technology-mediated social activity, including computer-mediated communication; the presentation of learning tasks; and the demands of 'learning to learn' in NL situations.  The third section of the paper identifies a potential research agenda to guide further explorations of CLT in NL including: research into technical aspects of NL to improve the presentation of information and computer interfaces; research into the use of instructional design techniques sympathetic to CLT and specifically targeting NL and engagement tasks; research to understand learning to learn online in NL from a CLT perspective.


Monday May 14, 2018 4:40pm - 5:05pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words cognitive load theory, cognitive load, instructional design

4:40pm

Learning in the wild: Predicting the formation of ties in ‘Ask’ subreddit communities using ERG models
The theoretical lenses, empirical measures and analytical tools associated with social network analysis comprise a wealth of knowledge that can be used to analyse networked learning. This has popularized the use of the social network analysis approach to understand and visualize structures and dynamics in online learning networks, particularly where data could be automatically gathered and analysed. Research in the field of social network learning analysis has (a) used social network visualizations as a feedback mechanism and an intervention to enhance online social learning activities (Bakharia & Dawson, 2011; Schreurs, Teplovs, Ferguson, de Laat, & Buckingham Shum, 2013), (b) investigated what variables predicted the formation of learning ties in networked learning processes (Cho, Gay, Davidson, & Ingraffea, 2007), (c) predicted learning outcomes in online environments (Russo & Koesten, 2005), and (d) studied the nature of the learning ties (de Laat, 2006). This paper expands the understanding of the variables predicting the formation of learning ties in online informal environments. Reddit, an online news sharing site that is commonly referred to as ‘the front page of the Internet’, has been chosen as the environment for our investigation because conversations on it emerge from the contributions of members, and it combines perspectives of experts and non-experts (Moore & Chuang, 2017) taking place in a plethora of subcultures (subreddits) occurring outside traditional settings. We study two subreddit communities, ‘AskStatistics’, and ‘AskSocialScience’, in which we believe that informal learning is likely to happen in Reddit, and which offer avenues for comparison both in terms of the communication dynamics and learning processes occurring between members. We gathered all the interactions amongst the users of these two subreddit communities for a 1-year period, from January 1st, 2015 until December 31st, 2015. Exponential Random Graph models (ERGm) were employed to determine the endogenous (network) and exogenous (node attributes) factors facilitating the networked ties amongst the users of these communities. We found evidence that Redditors’ networked ties arise from network dynamics (reciprocity and transitivity) and from the Redditors’ role as a moderator in the subreddit communities. These results shed light into the understanding of the variables predicting the formation of ties in informal networked learning environments, and more broadly contribute to the development of the field of social network learning analysis.


Monday May 14, 2018 4:40pm - 5:05pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Social Network Learning Analysis,Reddit,Subreddit Communities,ERGm

5:05pm

Distributed learning and isolated testing: tensions in traditional assessment practices
Traditional assessment in higher education often measures performance in controlled conditions, isolating students from the people and many of the resources they have interacted with in the process of learning. While a desire to maximise reliability and standardise the measurement of ability is understandable, there is a danger that such practices privilege internal, individual and abstract forms of knowledge at the expense of contextualised, collective and adaptive practices. Most university graduates will need to be effective networked learners, using social and material resources to adapt to changing and complex workplace settings and, increasingly, digital networks. If we accept that assessment is an important driver of learning, then it follows that assessments in which students are able to make use of available resources and networks, may afford a more appropriate preparation for future employment, particularly in light of an increasing need to adapt to technological change.
In this paper, we draw on ideas from distributed cognition, in which processes of thinking are shared across people, tools and objects, to question traditional assessment practices. To ground our discussion, we present findings from a thematic analysis of blog posts of MSc Clinical Education students (made up of clinical educators from a variety of nationalities and disciplines) about the process of learning a novel motor skill. While these students tended to consider mastery of the skill to involve the ability to perform it without the help of people or supporting resources (instructions, images, video demonstrations, etc.), our analysis shows that there was often no clear boundary between supported and unsupported performance and that a requirement to reduce dependency on supportive networks and materials could be a barrier to development. Further, the acknowledgement by many students that learning and performance are contextual leads us to the conclusion that, while reducing reliance on resources may help to stabilise some forms of knowledge, it may also reduce opportunities to develop effective practices and the adaptive capacity to integrate into complex social and technological environments. In conclusion, we call for the development of assessments in which students are not only allowed but encouraged to make effective use of networks, technologies, environments and artefacts in ways that test both understanding and the ability to operate as components of distributed systems.

Speakers

Monday May 14, 2018 5:05pm - 5:30pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Assessment, Districuted Cognition, Situated Learning

5:05pm

Students' digital learning environments
The objective of the paper is to examine the nature of students’ digital learning environments to understand the interplay of institutional systems and tools that are managed by the students themselves. The paper is based on a study of 128 students’ digital learning environments. The objectives of the study are 1) to provide an overview of tools for students’ study activities, 2) to identify the most used and most important tools for students and 3) to discover which activities the tools are used for. The empirical study reveals that the students have a varied use of digital media. Some of the most used tools in the students’ digital learning environments are Facebook, Google Drive, tools for taking notes, and institutional systems. Additionally, the study shows that the tools meet some very basic demands of the students in relation to collaboration, communication, and feedback. Finally, the study shows that most of the important tools are not related to the systems provided by the educational institutions. Based on the study, the paper concludes with a discussion of how institutional systems connect to the other tools in the students’ practices, and how we can qualify students’ digital learning environments in relation to existing and emerging needs.


Monday May 14, 2018 5:05pm - 5:30pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Personal Learning Environments, LMS, Virtual Learning Environments, Digital Learning Environments, Educational Technology

5:30pm

Visualising the code: a study of student engagement with programming in a distance learning context
Programming is a subject that many students find difficult and it may be particularly challenging for distance learning students working largely on their own. Many ideas have been put forward in the literature to explain why students struggle with programming, including: the relative unfamiliarity of computer programming or ‘radical novelty’ (Dijkstra, 1989), cognitive load (Shaffer, 2004) and that the whole learning environment may be influential (Scott & Ghinea, 2013).
This paper reports on the first phase of a project, ‘Visualising the code’, which is investigating the impact of using a visual programming language on student engagement with programming. We used as our case-study, TU100 ‘My digital life’ which is a level 1 undergraduate Computer Science module in the Open University (UK). The rationale for this work stems from the necessity of developing an introductory undergraduate module that will engage students of widely differing prior levels of experience in terms of programming and of education generally. In TU100, the module team introduced a visual programming environment, based on Scratch (MIT, 2007), called ‘Sense’ which is used in conjunction with an electronic device, the SenseBoard.
We analysed the grades of 6,159 students in the final assessment across six presentations of the module to identify student performance in the programming task, as distinct from their overall performance on the module. The aim was to explore whether there was any difference between student engagement with the programming task in comparison with non-programming tasks. Early results suggest that there is no significant difference in levels of engagement between these tasks, and it appears that success, or otherwise, in one type of task is a good predictor of engagement with the other task.
There are implications for networked learning of this work, given that the learning environment encompasses: the student’s own home or other space, both printed books and digital learning materials, a programming environment linked to a physical device (i.e. the SenseBoard) and communications networks that link students to their peers and to their tutors. The learning environment also includes support through face-to-face and online tutorials and other online resources, such as forums.
In the next phase of the project we will analyse the textual comments made by TU100 students in the end of module survey to evaluate their views on the visual programming environment.


Monday May 14, 2018 5:30pm - 5:55pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Visual Programming, Student Engagement, Distance Learning, Computer Science Education, Scratch

5:30pm

Networked learning in children's transition from day-care to school: Connections between contexts
This paper reports on a socioculturally informed design-based study concerning young children's use of tablets within the educational contexts constituting their transition from day-care to school. The study explores tablet-mediated and dialogical activities as potential means for negotiating connections between the different contexts which the children traverse during this transition. At several occasions, the participating 5- to 7-year-old children are invited to use tablets for producing photos, photo-collages and e-books about their everyday institutional environments, thus aiming at mediating the children's engagements within their contexts. During processes of mutual production and dialogical reviewing of this digital content, children, peers and professionals dialogically and multimodally explore the institutional contexts of transition. As an element of this, differences and similarities between these contexts are pivots of dialogue. Networked learning is thus conceptualized as a matter of networked situations and contexts for young children during their transition from day-care to primary school, and technological artefacts are viewed as potential means for mediating children's meaning making about continuities as well as differences during this process. It is argued that tablet-mediated activities in young children's educational settings tend to imply a certain theoretical as well as practical notion of worthwhile tablet use, valuating active digital production against consumption of content, and at the same time involving a certain educational use of tablets which dissociates itself from the social and emotional aspects of tablet use often related to games and play-culture. In the present project, activities partly adapt to prevailing notions of worthwhile tablet use by including literacy-aspects involved in the tasks of children producing digital content. But at the same time, the intended focus on children's engagements within and perspectives on their institutional contexts transcends tasks of simple instruction and implies dimensions of social and emotional character which may be delicate to handle within the educational context of pedagogically planned activities. This calls for certain considerations concerning the cultural and social dimensions of meaning making which are involved when dealing with children's experiences within their institutional contexts. Potentials as well as pitfalls are highlighted by way of examples, and finally some principles are outlined regarding the project's ongoing work on tablet-mediated activities as means for engaging pedagogically with children’s experiences of their everyday institutional lives across contexts.


Monday May 14, 2018 5:30pm - 5:55pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Tablet-mediated Activities, Networked Contexts, Primary Contexts, Day-care, Primary School, Transition

7:00pm

Drinks Reception
Sponsored by Springer

Monday May 14, 2018 7:00pm - 8:00pm
Ban Jelacic Reception Hall Hotel Dubrovnik, Zagreb
 
Tuesday, May 15
 

9:00am

Encounters with the mobilage (virtual or actual)?
This paper explains and reflects on two methods used as part of a doctoral research project to investigate mobile phone use by healthcare students for academic work._x000D_ Theoretical moves were made to retain some of the complexities of researching technology use, drawing upon ideas from ethnography, phenomenology, actor network theory (ANT) and the networked learning literature. Informants and their devices were conceived of as a 'mobilage'; a blend word that incorporates 'mobile assemblage' from ANT with theories of informal learning, ie. bricolage. A focus on the mobile phone helped to circumscribe mobilage but it was important to avoid excluding other information technologies in use._x000D_ The two methods featured in this paper are 'encounters', a particular framing of one-to-one interviews, and an online focus group (OFG) which drew upon the 'Day Experience' cultural probe method, seeking to prompt informants to giving 'in the moment' detail of their mobilage._x000D_ Encounters were primed with a learn-place list/map drawing activity which, in some cases, dominated the early time spent with informants. In spite of this threat to gaining useful data about mobilage, it became apparent that the list/map drawing itself made the encounter a site of epistemic performance closely related to the practice of academic work. This realisation occurred whilst listening to the audio recording rather than attending to verbatim transcription._x000D_ The online focus group ran for three months. Seven informants were invited to react to triggers sent by the researcher but they were also free to post their own messages, including hyperlinks, and other media. Response traffic varied over time but at its nadir was sustained by a couple of informants. Informants who contributed to both the encounters and the online focus group helped provide a more rounded picture of mobilage as manifest for them. Although the OFG was never intended as an 'online ethnography', scholars from that field confirm the usefulness of meeting informants in person. OFG data was carefully transferred from the Yammer platform to the ATLAS.ti analysis tool so as to anonymise contributions but retain the 'look and feel' of Yammer._x000D_ It is hoped to take the corpus forward into representation through a series of vignettes which, as part of analysis, are being developed as phenomenological texts.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 9:00am - 9:25am
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words methods, ANT, mobile phone, cultural probe, interviews, online focus group

9:00am

A Flipped Classroom Model for Inquiry-Based Learning in Cyprus Primary Education Context
In this article, we present the outcomes of the pilot phase of a multi-case study being conducted in Cyprus. The study aims to develop and propose universal design principles of using a Flipped Classroom (FC) approach as a pedagogical structure of Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL) applicable across primary education context in Cyprus. The universal design principles refer to the general guidelines most primary teachers can follow when designing their lessons by integrating the two instructional models of FC and IBL, and to the specific pedagogical strategies teachers can use for different school subjects to motivate and improve their students' learning processes through Networked Lerning (NL) opportunities. Providing teachers with those principles (i.e. guidelines and strategies) is particularly important given the lack of instructional experiences of Cyprus primary school teachers in implementing a FC model in their classroom practices and a wide range of subject matters that those teachers need to teach. There has been a limited focus, in previous research concerning the FC model, on its effectiveness within the primary education context and also in relation to the NL technologies used. The pilot study aims to primarily address this research gap, develop the IB-FC model and present potential benefits of using the IB-FC model in primary school context. The learning process based on the IB-FC model includes pre-class, in-class and after-class activities. During the pre-class phase, students explore the learning content provided by the teacher at home and obtain an entrance ticket which is used during class time for the IBL facilitated by a series of classroom activities, which require the students to be creative and collaborative. Forums and other features of online learning platforms are utilized so as to promote NL through collaboration and communication. The after-class phase involves self-assessment procedures and the completion of an e-portfolio page. After the first pilot-nature of iteration of implementing the model, participant students’ learning experiences and perceptions on this new learning scenario were collected through focus groups and reflection forums. Based on our findings from the pilot study, the IB-FC framework including important pedagogical principles and additional instructional tools have been developed and offered to seven primary school teachers in the current stage of our multi-case study, through which the framework will be further developed and refined.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 9:00am - 9:25am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words flipped classroom, flipped learning, inquiry-based learning, primary education, technology-enhanced learning, universal principles

9:00am

Workshop 4 - Online Peer Observation: Use of a Model to Un-tangle our Pragmatic Action from Reflective Practice.
Intended Audience Those interested or involved in, the development of online approaches to peer observation of teaching. Workshop Description Online peer observation is an emerging field which remains under-researched. It offers opportunities for part-time and associate lecturers to join in the life of the institution and overcome the potential for social isolation. It can be approached by individuals in many different ways, with many different outcomes. This workshop will present a model which will equip participants to make crucial decisions about their own institutional, or individual, peer observation practices. This workshop provides a new model of Teaching Observation with which to explore relevant issues and opportunities with fellow participants. At the same time, the facilitators will share the development of their practice, via online peer observation at University of Derby Online (Bowskill et al., 2017). Participant Engagement The workshop will contain a mixture of small group and whole-group discussions. Participants will evaluate their current practice and consider this alongside a new continuum model. They will locate their practice on the continuum and consider this alongside a case study of evolved practice. This mix of activities will provide a participative framework for the exploration of online peer observation as an emerging area of meaningful action and practice. Participant Outcomes • Participants will have a greater awareness of challenges, opportunities and current practice with regards to online peer observation. • Participants will have an opportunity to learn about online peer observation as a practice at the University of Derby Online (UDOL). • The workshop will generate multiple perspectives (and possibilities) for online peer observation, drawn from a variety of institutions around the world. • Individuals will be keen to explore their own peer observation practice in new ways.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 9:00am - 10:45am
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

9:00am

Workshop 5 - Bridging the gap between Networked Learning and Learning Analytics
Intended audience: The intended audience for this workshop is anyone, be that researchers or practitioners, who is interested in Networked Learning and/or Learning Analytics. Prior knowledge of methodologies used in the fields is preferred but not necessary. The most important trait is a curiosity towards influencing and, hopefully, furthering the practices of both fields. Workshop Description: Learning Analytics is a field that is constantly evolving, encompassing new perspectives and expanding into other research fields. This workshop was inspired by the 2012 call for action from Rebecca Ferguson in which she called for building stronger connections to the learning sciences (Ferguson, 2012). Although this call has not remained unanswered, we still find this connection to be insufficient to foster the development of technological solutions needed in the future. This is where the Networked Learning community comes into play. During this workshop, we wish to discover, reflect on and build connections joining the two fields, in the hope that a better understanding of what Networked Learning can offer the Learning Analytics community and vice versa will foster beneficial and productive collaborations in the future. The workshop will comprise of three phases: 1. An introduction to the field of Learning Analytics and some of the historical challenges herein. 2. A session inspired by design thinking in which participants will go through four time boxed iterations: 3. A short wrap-up Participant engagement The participants will discuss the present and future perspectives for inter-collaboration between the fields of Learning Analytics and Networked Learning. This will be done through activities inspired by design thinking and the Double Diamond design model by Design Council UK (Design Council UK, n.d.). Four activities will be carried out: 1) Brainstorm 2) Mapping of ideas and inspirations to form inter-connectivity between the fields 3) Choosing and preparing insight for presentation 4) A brief presentation and discussion of chosen insights. Participant outcomes The intended outcome for the participants of the workshop is a further understanding of the interplay between the two fields. Furthermore, as the workshop is explorative in nature, it can be assumed that each participant might gain a better understanding as to strengths and weaknesses contained in each fields, and hopefully how an interplay between the fields can remedy weaknesses that exist.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 9:00am - 10:45am
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

9:25am

Amira’s complexity and cosmopolitanism: the role of disposition in mobilities and mobile learning
The capacity of individuals or systems to generate or learn how to generate a metastability, a state of navigating the largely unmanageable aspects of complexity, “cannot be reduced either to the actions of individual actors or to persisting social structures” (Urry, 2016: 59). Complexity largely resists proportionality or linearity; small changes can generate large structural consequences, and individuals will, intellectually or dispositionally, exert considerable resources towards navigating this metastability._x000D_ This paper explores complexity through Amira, an imagined composite of characteristics gleaned from the author’s research. Amira is a Nepalese woman studying in a postgraduate programme in Europe. The habitus of Bourdieu is repurposed as disposition; a tendency of an individual to act, react, or think in a particular way based on the social systems through which they move. Disposition is advanced in as a necessary addition to the theorizing of mobilities and mobile learning respectively, one that countenances Amira’s navigational practices and learning. It is a fluid process of engagement across multiple contexts, some being materially, deliberately, and dispositionally mobile. Ultimately, it is one that Amira must negotiate to maintain the mobility on which she depends._x000D_ Mobile technology is positioned as a critical factor in managing Amira’s mobility across her communities. Mobile learning, as an attendant learning position designed to bolster Amira’s capacity for managing her mobility, needs to account for the wider range of this activity: across multiple interactional contexts, amongst people and interactive technologies, encapsulating public and private processes; activity that moves between individual Amira’s) and structural (those “immanent to the material conditions of global interdependence”) systems. _x000D_ Mobile learning, if it to be of use to Amira, needs to account for the wider range of this activity: across multiple interactional contexts, amongst people and interactive technologies, encapsulating public and private processes; activity that moves between micro (Amira’s) and macro (those “immanent to the material conditions of global interdependence”) systems. Mobile learning needs to be accounting for Amira’s capacity for material capacity, intellectual capacity, and, as this paper is attempting to suggest, a dispositional capacity. Disposition is advanced in this paper as a means of expanding her capacity to navigate the complexity of her own mobility, and as a means of expanding research practice towards identifying such complexity.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 9:25am - 9:50am
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words mobile learning, digital education, complexity theory, mobilities, cosmopolitanism, ICT4D

9:25am

The Unbundled University: Researching emerging models in an unequal landscape. Preliminary findings from fieldwork in South Africa
As Higher Education undergoes a massive expansion in demand globally, and experiences financial pressures exacerbated by the global financial crisis of 2008, the sector is evolving rapidly. Market pressures on the sector encourage the search for additional income and new forms of provision, and private providers are increasingly entering the sector. At the same time, the HE sector has seen the appearance of many flexible online courses and qualifications, delivered by new configurations of providers and partnerships, including by parties new to the sector, through a process of disaggregating educational provision into its component parts, or ‘unbundling’. Whilst these changes may offer opportunities for increased numbers of learners to access education and thus contribute to economic prosperity, there is very little empirical research about the nature, process and impact of this unbundling and rebundling of educational provision, as it is playing out in this rapidly reconfiguring space. This paper reports data on South African Higher Education from the research project ‘The Unbundled University: Researching emerging models in an unequal landscape’, a project which explores the terrain in both South Africa and the UK.  South Africa is deemed the most unequal country in the world and its HE system is under pressure, demonstrated in part by rising fees, student protests and calls for decolonised education, whilst online education is viewed by some, including the South African Government, as a way to increase access.  Using a new dataset systematically collected from the public domain, data visualisation is employed to bring a novel perspective to the educational provision being offered using digital technology (and the private companies partnering with universities in South Africa to provide it), to uncover patterns of activity and their relationship to existing patterns of inequality in the HE sector. Using mapping, or social cartography, this paper reveals patterns and relationships which are otherwise not so obvious. Significantly, the maps reveal relationships between universities and private companies which appear to reflect existing inequalities, insofar as private companies partner almost exclusively with historically advantaged, research intensive universities, with high international ranking and reputation. This paper argues that such partnerships do not disrupt an unequal terrain, but rather reflect and possibly reinforce the power asymmetries already at play._x000D_  


Tuesday May 15, 2018 9:25am - 9:50am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Higher Education, South Africa, Digital Technology, Marketisation, Unbundling, Social Cartography

9:50am

Making digital compost: place-responsive pedagogy at a distance
Students studying at a distance are situated at a location remote from the campus, connecting to the institution via learning networks such as virtual learning environments, and communicating through a range of synchronous and asynchronous tools. While students may perceive a link between their physical learning environment and the institutional campus, their physical location may not be explicitly acknowledged or included in the learning activities of distance programmes beyond opportunities to participate in summer schools._x000D_ As place is defined as a location which has meaning for an individual, I propose that further research is required to explore the role that these meaningful locations can play in the learning experience of students studying at a distance from the institution. I question whether it is possible to develop a form of emotional connection to place at a distance, through artefacts and stories shared digitally by someone who feels closely connected, or related, to a place. I consider what the benefits may be of developing a more place-aware approach to teaching and learning in this context._x000D_ This paper outlines the early stages of a PhD research project investigating the importance of place for distance learners studying online. I will briefly describe methods previously used in outdoor education which may provide a way of capturing a sense of place at a distance. These methods include storytelling and walking interviews, with both options making use of mobile technologies. The use of these methods may also foster a stronger connection between students, the locality where they are based while studying, and the institution. Through this process, it may help to reduce the sense of social distance which can affect students studying at distance._x000D_ Incorporating activities traditionally used in conservation and outdoor education may demonstrate how education for sustainable development principles and practices can be integrated into distance education. If successful, this may help to address the missing element of teaching "in" the environment, providing a route to facilitate experiential place-based learning for distance students. This may also encourage a sense of care for the environment, as part of an affective approach to learning._x000D_

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 9:50am - 10:15am
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words place, distance education, mobilities, education for sustainable development, storytelling

9:50am

Scope of Virtual Reality (VR) Based Disaster Preparedness Training for the Less Literate and Illiterate People
Virtual reality (VR) has evolved over the past decade, and as this evolution continues, scope and significance of using VR in various educational settings are worth exploring. With the availability of low-cost Google Cardboard VR tool and emergence of affordable smartphones, the possibility of creating a participant-centric virtual reality learning environment even in developing countries is not unthinkable. However, there remains a void in the adaptation of the VR based tools in the developing countries. As of today, no initiatives are taken to create a learning setting which would allow less literate and illiterate people to overcome some of the evident curses of illiteracy through planned elevated use of other senses such as vision and sound._x000D_ To contribute to this identified void, the author conducted two iterations of small-scale fieldwork where VR based technology was used alongside the author’s existing ‘Training in a Tab' project. In this project, a tablet device based disaster preparedness training was provided to the technologically disadvantaged, predominantly less literate and illiterate group of people. In 2016, a pilot study was conducted at Uthali Village located in the Manikganj district, Dhaka division, Bangladesh followed by a post-pilot scaling study in 2017, conducted in the Teknaf Subdistrict, Chittagong division, Bangladesh._x000D_ Findings from the fieldwork suggest VR based system can be compatible with the existing practices and it is possible to use the VR based system to enhance the learning process in a social setting. From a pioneering initiative to integrate VR within a less literate population, this paper contains a brief record of the use of VR in disaster preparedness settings, sets out the rationale for using this in the developing countries, provides an introduction to possible methods that can be used in the fieldwork. The early findings of both studies affirm VR based system’s possibility in stimulating ‘disruptive learning' among the targeted less literate population which can lead towards long-term change in the participants' perspectives on disaster awareness and can make them further interested in learning more about disaster preparedness. Despite the concerns with localised content creation, the findings will be able to guide future researchers who might want to create VR based training for a similar population.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 9:50am - 10:15am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Virtual Reality (VR), Disaster preparedness, Disruptive Learning, Training In A Tab, Rapid ethnography

10:15am

Learning how kinds matter: A posthuman rethinking Ian Hacking’s concepts of kinds, dynamic nominalism and the looping effect
What does it mean to learn in a network? What does it mean to be a particular kind of learner? To develop and work towards a particular kind of being? Does every instantiation of a network lead to a different form of being? If networks are, as Jones (2016: 486) says “interactive processes that co-constructively shape persons”, then how contingent are these? How much does the social and material elements of the network contribute to the learner’s understanding of their own personhood?_x000D_ This paper is an exploration of Ian Hacking’s work on ‘making up people’ (e.g. Hacking 1986, 1991, 1995, 1999, 2004, 2006a, 2006b). Hacking posits that the possibilities for people are bounded, determined by what is imaginable and articulable, what is named and described. This naming of people, or classification, is part of an iterative, dynamic process in which the names and the named emerge simultaneously and in interaction with each other, changing the “space of possibilities for personhood”. In this paper, I link that concept to notions of ‘becoming’ in networked learning and suggest Hacking provides a useful frame to think about how learners come to know about and enact particular ways of being._x000D_ I start by briefly summarising Hacking’s key concepts of kinds, dynamic nominalism and the looping effect, and outline Hacking’s framework. I argue that Hacking is offering a useful onto-epistemology for thinking about 'becoming' as part of a sociocultural network of humans, institutions and social processes. I then briefly describe posthumanism and explore how a posthuman and sociomaterial approach can help round out the important missing element in Hacking’s theory – the materials and technologies that are crucial in understanding any learning assemblage. In bringing together these approaches, seemingly inoperable binaries collapse and ‘becoming’ becomes a matter of constant process and persistent re-workings. This offers productive ways to think about learning as an emergent entanglement of social, the material and the technological processes that are constantly re-working and re-creating what it means to be ‘made up’.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 10:15am - 10:40am
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Ian Hacking, Kinds, Posthuman, Sociomaterial, Becoming, Learning

10:45am

Refreshments
Tuesday May 15, 2018 10:45am - 11:15am
Ban Jelacic Reception Hall Hotel Dubrovnik, Zagreb

11:15am

Mapping Patterns of Relations in an Online Graduate Course: A Sociomaterialist Perspective
This study explores the patterns of relations that emerged and mutated during a particular semester of an online, graduate course, Multimedia Design for Learning. The assemblage, a learning community, was comprised of a professor-course designer, learners, the course content, digital connectivity, a learning management system (LMS), digital media production software, learning tasks, assessment criteria, and emergent activities. We describe the expected and unexpected relational interplays observed among the actors and map the performativity of the learning community. Within this interplay we were more concerned about how particular nodal points (actors within a network) came to operate as sites of attachments (bonds between actors), and simultaneously promulgated different sensibilities and new relations, which in turn, worked to transform material/digital/human objects into agents.  Our main interest was to better understand how, from an initially fragile assemblage, an online learning community could emerge, reconstitute, and/or dissolve. We first describe Sørensen’s (2009) patterns of relations (regions, networks, and fluids) metaphor. Then, we consider the shaping, reshaping, and co-constitution of the patterns of relations (Mol & Law, 1994). We also describe the role of obligatory points of passage, and sites of attachment that held the assemblage’s network together. Our methodological approach drew upon Hine’s (2000; 2004) principles for undertaking a virtual ethnographical study. In order to gather our data, we conducted online, structured, asynchronous, text-based interviews with seven of the fourteen course participants. A second data set was derived from the course designer-instructor’s (also a co-author here) reflective notes. As a research-group, we spent reflexive time constructing and applying a guiding conceptual framework for data analysis. We engaged in two rounds of coding. The first round was descriptive; the second round was self-reflective.  In this paper, we focus on key themes that describe student-participant’s chosen sites for: 1) finding familiarity/continuity in the processes of navigating synchronous and asynchronous communication channels and associated resources initially chosen by the instructor, (2) finding ways to collaboratively engage in knowledge construction within the course, and (3) circumventing the patterns of relations initially implemented within the course design. We conclude the paper by discussing how initial attempts to create spaces for specific patterns of relations (“design choices”) appeared to evolve within the learning community assemblage; that is, how activities emerged unexpectedly.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 11:15am - 11:40am
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words sociomaterialism, network learning, online education, mapping relations

11:15am

Surveillance, (dis)trust and teaching with plagiarism detection technology
Key dimensions of digital education practices are shaped by instrumental goals such as quality, efficiency and transparency. These goalsare often addressed through high-level technology decisions which should be understood in terms of visibility and surveillance. Monitoring technology is deployed for multiple purposes in the contemporary university, in contexts from learning analytics to attendance tracking. This paper is a theoretical exploration of how the technologically-mediated practice of plagiarism detection, in the context of surveillance and distrust, might affect relationships amongst teachers, students and institutions. Drawing on Lyon's (2017) concept of 'surveillanceculture', it examines the types of participation that are enacted in relation to managing studentwriting. It critiques the assumption that automated plagiarism detection is a neutral technology which can be used benevolently (guiding students gently towards'good academic practice'). Instead, it suggests that this technology acts with and on already problematic conditions of digital visibility which are also seen in the wider digital culture beyond the university, and which require critical and thoughtful responses from within the academy. Logics of surveillance are strongly at work in practices which attempt to regulate student behaviour through the exposure of their writing to algorithmic scanning and monitoring. These logics frame students as in need of careful monitoring to ensure learning and teaching runs smoothly, and framing academic writing as a space of dishonesty which is both rampant and solvable through technology. Routines of plagiarism detection intervene negatively in one of the central facets of student-teacher relationships: the production and assessment of student work. Where these relationships become risk-averse and mutually suspicious, trust is blocked or lost and not easily regained. Effective strategies of resistance require finding ways to re-sensitise ourselves and our students to the values we want to prioritise in our classrooms, and offering means by which students can voice their responses to surveillance cultures in higher education; and addressing issues at strategic levels within our institutions and the sector more widely by developing robust mechanisms for engaging in critical debate, discussion about and review of technology platforms and practices.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 11:15am - 11:40am
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words surveillance, trust, plagiarism detection, teaching with technology

11:15am

The teacher as designer? What is the role of ‘learning design’ in networked learning?
This paper explores various strands of ‘Learning Design’ and the understandings of Learning Design that have been developing or are emerging across research fields. We aim to understand the differences and similarities that have developed within various areas, such as Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL), networked learning, designs for learning and draw out their development and branching to understand potentially different ontological or epistemological roots they draw on. Further, we wish to inquire into how the area of ‘Learning Design’ relate to or distances itself from the philosophy and values of networked learning.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 11:15am - 11:40am
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Learning Design, Design Patterns, Design for Learning

11:15am

Educators, copyright and Open Education Resources in Massive Open Online Courses
This study explored how educators, in an enabling open environment, understand and express copyright, licences, and the legal dimensions of openness as they moved from a traditional teaching role to creating massive open online courses (MOOCs). The MOOCs were produced in partnership with the Centre for Innovation in Learning and Teaching (CILT) at the University of Cape Town (UCT). CILT has a long-standing engagement with an enabling open environment and support for OER and the university has an open access policy. Nevertheless, it could not be assumed that the educators making the MOOCs had a commitment to or knowledge of open education resources (OERs), nor could it be assumed that they were interested in or had expertise in copyright, particularly as pertaining to MOOCs. While there are several other open practices relevant to making MOOCs, this paper focuses on the legal aspects, on educator engagement with OER content that has used legal mechanisms for sharing. Legal openness draws on understanding and engaging with copyright; using legally open content; making content legally open in different ways; open licensing expertise and advice (Hodgkinson-Williams, 2014).  It is premised on an understanding of the legal mechanisms required to adopt (including both creation and use) such content, and therefore within the ambit of copyright management. Thus an understanding alternative forms of licensing means a priori an engagement with copyright.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 11:15am - 11:40am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words copyright, open licence, MOOC, creative commons, licence, open education

11:40am

Communities of Practice: new modes of collaboration and networked learning?
Over the last decades, there has been more and more interest in various modes of networked learning, knowledge creation, communities or practice (CoPs) but there is not yet a clear identification of the conditions to succeed in such initiatives. This interest for CoPs stems from the fact that organizations expect substantial gains from knowledge development and networked learning. Communities of practice are seen in many organizations as a source of networked learning, and ultimately of competitiveness and innovation. The interest for communities of practice arises from this objective of learning and innovation, but it is viewed as a specific form of learning and sharing, in principle more centred on the individuals and their exchanges than on “management” by the firm, although the firm does seem to have a role to play in fostering such initiatives. Thus, the use of communities of practice has emerged as a way to develop collective skills and organizational learning, in order to foster innovation and success for organizations. In this paper, we identify the conditions of success or failure of communities of practice as a mode of networked learning, knowledge management and knowledge sharing, as these conditions have not yet been established. We first define this new form of learning and knowledge sharing through communities of practice. We then present some of the results concerning success, or more precisely attainment of objectives, as success can be defined in various ways. We do this on the basis of 7 case studies of communities of practice implemented in firms. The empirical results are based on a questionnaire survey administered to the participants of these communities of practice, but also on qualitative interviews and regular work and exchanges with some of the animators and participants in these communities of practice. We highlight some interesting differences observed according to age and gender, as well as some limits and challenges that were observed in the learning and sharing process, which are often underestimated. We mainly highlight the factors which explain success, defined as attainment of objectives, and these are : commitment and motivation of participants for the attainment of objectives, as well as the presence of a leader, animator or steward._x000D_  


Tuesday May 15, 2018 11:40am - 11:50am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words communities of practice, learning, collaboration, network, knowledge, sharing

11:40am

Student Inquiry, Networks of Knowledge and Linked Data
This paper explores the potential for the development of new learning opportunities in higher education, through students being conceptualised not as consumers, recipients or commodities, but rather as co-researchers and co-producers of knowledge. Specifically, it discusses the implications of new forms of networked knowledge enabled by the emergence of semantic web and linked data technologies and the reconceptualising of the Internet as a ‘global data space’. We draw on our experience of initiating and supporting a range of projects in UK higher education in the course of an extended programme of research and development. Some of these involved the design and development of new technology platforms, while others were focussed on the redevelopment of taught courses, assignments and assessed activities. What these projects had in common is that they all took place in the context of complex learning settings in which some variety of case based learning is used. They involved students drawn from different disciplines in higher education in ‘research-based learning’ about curriculum contexts, and about pedagogical aspects of these contexts. New digital tools were developed in the form of rich web applications that allowed learner interaction with content, in many cases underpinned by data from multiple sources and in diverse formats. In the development of these online technologies, students located, analysed, synthesised and, in some cases, generated new data, and, perhaps more significantly, participated in local or global knowledge networks. What we will argue is that these types of projects involve not only the development of specific techno-literacies, but also that they form the basis of broader ‘critical digital literacies’. These in turn equip students to enter workplaces better positioned to inquire into the particularities of the educational settingsin which they work and the practices in which they are engaged. They can thus undertake ‘counter-research’ in which dominant rhetorics are challenged, and evidence bases for policy and practice are subjected to scrutiny, critique and reinterpretation. This presents the potential for students to undertake critical and politicised inquiry as part of a broader reframing of the purposes of higher education.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 11:40am - 12:05pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words linked data, inquiry-based learning, higher education, digital literacy, politicised inquiry

11:40am

Whose domain and whose ontology? Preserving human radical reflexivity over the efficiency of automatically generated feedback
There are some forms of feedback in daily life that, though generated and delivered via a machine, we may welcome, because they help us to function with ease. For example, being provided with explicit directional instructions from a Sat Nav can save time and embarrassment from being late. Automatic tills in supermarkets mean we can empty loose change into these to pay for things, and the amount is calculated on our behalf, with change efficiently dispensed. Feedback on our bank balances from cash machines may not always be welcome…, but there are advantages in terms of practicality. In this article we challenge however, the uncritical application of similar algorithmic processes for providing automatically generated feedback for students in Higher Education (HE). We contest this on the basis that the human side of feedback appears to be giving way to the non-human, as e-technologies and their algorithmic affordances are expected to meet the demands that emerge from within a neoliberal framing of contemporary HE. Initially we examine developments of Artificial Intelligence (AI), and the e-marking platform Turnitin to question where we might locate a student voice? We point to the way that networked learning intersects across developments in technology and radical pedagogies to support this concern. We then draw on our own relational, and lived, experience which produces feedback that emerges from within an illicit exploration of our own vulnerabilities as academics, as students, and friends, in a demonstration of performing radically reflexive feedback. Finally, we advocate for the creative potential of an autoethnographic research method and exploration of mindfulness practices aligned with teaching and learning journeys. These cannot and should not be reduced to the ‘sat-nav experience’ in terms of feedback. We suggest that, as technology becomes ever more intimately embedded into our everyday lives, generic (but power-laden) maps are incorporated into both student and staff ‘perceived’ space. A radically reflexive form of feedback may not follow a pre-defined route or map, but it does offer a vehicle to restore student voices and critical self-navigation that is absent, but very much needed, in the ongoing shaping of contemporary HE.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 11:40am - 12:05pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Feedback, Algorithms, Artificial Intelligence, Networked Learning, Autoethnography, Human Body

11:40am

Increasing Teacher Engagement in Learning Platforms through Future Workshops
In 2014, the Government and the Municipal Association agreed to realize the initiative on a learning platform for primary schools. The agreement originates from the elementary school reform and aims to support the elementary school reform (adopted in 2013) through concrete digital initiatives._x000D_ The user portal initiative means that all municipalities will acquire two digital solutions for schools by the end of 2017: A collaboration platform and a learning platform (Municipal Association, no year). As a result of this statutory work, all municipalities have purchased a learning platform that is being used in schools._x000D_ This paper is based on a large-scale research and development project, Use of Digital Learning Platforms and Learning Materials (Danish: Anvendelse af læringsplatforme og læremidler) (Misfeldt, n.d.) initiated by The National Agency for IT and Learning (STIL) in Denmark.  The paper addresses issues arising from one case study at one of the 15 schools participating in the larger-scale study. The case school is using the learning platform “MinUddannelse” (MU) and it has been used for approximately one year before the intervention research took place._x000D_ The paper explores a methodical approach combining future workshops, activity systems analysis, and learning experiments based on work with one of the 15 schools, which participated in the larger-scale study. The study documents, that this specific combination of approaches, which are new to the PD community, provides ownership and creates meaning among the participants to the implementation process. Further, the findings support, that the meaning of using the platform is not given or determined, however is a negotiated enterprise under development in interaction with the plasticity of the platform, how the platform, principles and practices are combined by the teacher professionals and the implementation process. The platform has built-in design principles and pedagogical values, and as such the materiality of the platforms affords certain practices. However, the future workshop, the ASA analysis, and the design experiments also documented that the meaning construction is shaped under use (and no use). A critical and constructive appropriation of the learning platform is therefor strongly linked to participatory implementation methods, where teachers are giving voice in exploring and experimenting with the learning platform into their professional practices.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 11:40am - 12:05pm
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words learning platform, future workshop, teacher's engagement and ownership, implementation and meaning

11:50am

Balancing privacy and openness, using a lens of contextual integrity
This paper describes a qualitative, empirical research study which explored the use of open educational practices (OEP) by academic staff in higher education, focusing particularly on the findings in relation to balancing privacy and openness. The study explored meaning-making and decision-making by university educators regarding whether, why, and how they used OEP. Open educational practices have been defined as “practices which support the (re)use and production of OER through institutional policies, promote innovative pedagogical models, and respect and empower learners as co-producers on their lifelong learning paths” (Ehlers, 2011, p. 4). The purpose of this study was to understand how university educators conceive of, make sense of, and make use of OEP, and to try to learn more about, and from, the practices and values of educators from across a broad continuum of ‘closed’ to open practices. The study was conducted at one Irish university using constructivist grounded theory methodology; semi-structured interviews were carried out with educators across multiple disciplines. Balancing privacy and openness emerged as a key concern of academic staff in relation to their digital and networked practices. This balancing act was described by participants, overwhelmingly, as an individual decision and an ongoing challenge: “you’re negotiating all the time.” A model was developed to illustrate how individuals seek to balance privacy and openness at four levels: macro (global level), meso (community/network level), micro (individual level), and nano (interaction level). The main finding of the study was that openness is always complex, personal, contextual, and continually negotiated. These empirical results reinforce the utility of Nissenbaum’s (2004, 2010) framework of contextual integrity in constructing a full understanding of meaning-making and decision-making with regard to open practices, and thus can contribute to effective support of academic staff in relation to open education and networked learning.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 11:50am - 12:00pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words OEP, open educational practices, privacy, contextual integrity, networked learning

12:00pm

Impact of MOOC-based professional development courses on self-directed and critical learning.
Recent research has revealed an increase in opportunities for MOOCs to provide students from different countries with an effective platform for learning. The main argument is that MOOCs can provide fast and easy access to western universities and their resources, and with that improve collaboration and interaction between nations. However, MOOCs have been criticized for being too challenging, specialized in certain teaching methods and not always meeting the expectations of the learners. Expectations are rooted in the way participants from different countries access and construct knowledge, and their individual way of learning may not be accounted for by the educational platform._x000D_ This paper investigates professional learning within the context of a MOOC to improve learning experiences. The study starts from the assumption that learners with different cultural and educational backgrounds bring different expectations and assumptions to online learning. The research explores the extent to which participants’ expectations, learning goals and aims have been met through examination of their criticisms, critiques and concerns of a MOOC. Brookfield’s Critical Incident Questionnaire (CIQ) was used on a weekly basis to capture the experiences of six English language teachers undertaking a continuing professional development (CPD) MOOC over the span of four weeks (Brookfield, 1995). Three ‘Cs’, concern, critique and criticism, were used to explore learners’ responses. In this study a concern is something related to an activity or content that causes learners to worry; critique is defined as the act of expressing an opinion about the good and bad parts of a thing, and criticism is defined as the act of expressing disapproval and noting the faults of a thing._x000D_ Findings illustrate the change in participants’ expectations and show them becoming aligned with the objectives of the course, critiquing rather than criticizing. This suggests that they started to take responsibility for their own learning and they became more reflective and analytical in their learning style. A wide range of critiques and criticisms that surfaced during the study have been identified around the content of the MOOC, particularly that the knowledge provided was too basic, and did not target experienced learners. Furthermore, the course lacked sufficient differentiation to meet participants’ metalanguage needs, and thus it did not account for terminology difficulties one would expect from participants with different professional backgrounds.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:00pm - 12:10pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Massive, Open, Online Courses (MOOC), The three big Cs, Activity theory, Professional development

12:05pm

ThreadED: A Networked Learning Initiative
ThreadED is a networked learning initiative designed to promote connections between teaching staff, students and digitised resources, as well as to support teaching and learning at Massey University Institute of Education in New Zealand. ThreadED is framed around three strands (and related teacher and student competencies) identified by the Institute as important foci for their programmes: equity, cultural responsivity and digital literacy. Resources and artefacts such as website links, articles, videos and apps are being identified, developed and catalogued at various levels of granularity, and linked to key competencies. A platform to archive and curate artefacts and resources has been developed, incorporating design principles that focus on maintaining autonomy and freedom of access to resources, for all teaching staff. Templates were also developed to provide support and guidelines for the annotation of each resource. These resources and artefacts will be used and curated by teaching staff for different teaching and learning purposes, across courses within the Institute of Education. A number of benefits are anticipated when the initiative begins operation in 2018. These include the adoption of the three key foci across all of the teaching programmes within the Institute of Education; the reduction in work and duplication associated with staff each producing the same content in different courses; staff having a greater awareness of each other’s work and a strengthening of relationships; and the creation of synergies between staff that may lead to other opportunities in teaching and research. Finally, it is anticipated that ThreadED will enable personalised, self-directed and flexible teaching and learning practices by allowing teaching staff to select – from a range of quality learning objects – a resource that best meets individual needs and learning goals of the courses that are taught within the Institute. This paper introduces this initiative, discussing its key underlying principles as well as strategies used to facilitate staff’s participation and contributions to a joint venture of knowledge creation. The initiative aims at reframing isolated academic practices at the Institute of Education towards an evolving participatory learning community, where everyone is able to build on each other’s knowledge and expertizes, sharing resources and practices related to equity, cultural responsivity and digital literacy.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:05pm - 12:15pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words equity, networked learning, digital literacy, digitised teaching, higher education

12:05pm

Mapping AI and Education debates: revisiting acquisition and participation metaphors for learning
The role of artificial intelligence for learning is again attracting attention in policy and academic fields; a renaissance fuelled in part by the proliferation and availability of big data, alongside advances in computational techniques and the need for a new ‘technical fix’ for Education (Robins and Webster, 1989). In the public domain, dramatic headlines abound proclaiming the end of education as we know it in utopian and dystopian terms. Yet, in the academic sphere important advances are being made that educators need to pay attention to in order to have a more nuanced and ‘responsible response’ (Biesta, 2013) to the role that artificial intelligence can and should play in Education._x000D_ This presentation aims to contribute to that goal through reporting findings from an ongoing study that aims to identify and explore academic studies that are concerned with artificial intelligence and Education. Through the use of a number of machine learning techniques we aim to map and visualise the current areas of research in this area and identify the underlying philosophies of learning and education embedded within these activities, drawing on Anna Sfard’s acquisition and participation metaphors for learning (Sfard, 1998)._x000D_ Through primarily computational analysis (including network analysis and natural language processing) of the citations, titles and abstracts (where available) of around 8500 books, chapters, papers and conference presentations alongside small scale qualitative coding of a sample of papers we highlight the different ways that people define and talk about AI in Education and demonstrate how the vast majority of work in this area is primarily promoting an ‘acquisition’ based view of learning, promoting individual cognition over collaborative, networked forms of participation. We argue that while this is not necessarily a problem as acquisition is an important aspect of learning; discussions of the use of artificial intelligence in Education would be significantly advanced if far more attention was placed on ways of thinking about learning and Education that promote a broader social-cultural view. This would enable more discussion of if, and how, the use of artificial intelligence in Education could advance knowledge in a Network Society alongside the use of artificial intelligence to make knowledge transfer more efficient; and further advance theoretical debates in Networked Learning.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:05pm - 12:15pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning , Topic Modelling, Acquisition, Participation , Education

12:05pm

Professional development as a collaborative endeavour of networked learning in higher educational settings: Dissemination of knowledge among teacher training professionals
University teachers continue to strive to take up mobile and blended learning technologies in their teaching practices and universities continue to support this work through professional development courses for university teachers. At Mid Sweden University, two projects have recently been carried out with the objective to develop higher education practices supported by mobile and blended learning technologies in teaching in practice. Professional development for university teachers was expected take place using an iterative design comprising five features: participating in a competence development course, planning trials, conducting trials, evaluating teaching and participating in a pedagogical seminar. In this paper, the preliminary results of the final interviews with 12 teacher educators will be presented. The interviews were carried out to explore beliefs regarding changes in teaching practices, following the completion of teacher professional development project. The results showed that the teacher educators in this study experienced change in the use of mobile and blended learning in their teaching through dialogue, collaboration, dissemination and networked learning. Three themes were identified. The first theme was collaboration. Here, the teacher educators expressed beliefs which could be related to collaboration for learning to use mobile and blended learning technologies in their teaching, supporting conditions for networked learning. This involved working and planning new technologies in new courses together. In the second theme, sharing is caring, the teachers in the study expressed helping each other out and supporting each other in the work to learn and use new technologies in their teaching. Support through pep talks and taking on learning new technologies as a group was one example of gaining knowledge about new technologies. In the third and final theme, the teacher educators’ expressed beliefs regarding dissemination as a way to share knowledge and experiences. Beliefs expressed here included learning through seeing what others were working with and exchanging knowledge. The teacher educators’ in this study also expressed the need for continued learning through collaboration and dissemination, as networked learning in their community of practice. How universities continue to provide professional development to support teachers’ continued work together in communities of practice through networked learning will be of importance. These efforts in professional development will provide possibilities to push forward change in teachers’ use of mobile and blended learning in their teaching practices.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:05pm - 12:15pm
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words blended learning, collaborative learning, community of practice, higher education, mobile learning, teacher professional development

12:10pm

Socialization and Cognitive Apprenticeship in Online Doctoral Programs
Online doctoral programs are gaining in popularity, both among students and institutions. However, research to date on the effectiveness and popularity of such programs has looked largely at either quantitative measures of student satisfaction or of administrative effectiveness and design. Further, previous research has also tended to focus on the early part of doctoral study; in specific, the coursework. This qualitative study reports findings from four online doctoral programs in one UK university, contributing to the literature in two important ways. First, we aim to look specifically at current and recently graduated students’ experiences of doing their thesis using a demographic and experiential survey. This will be followed up by in-depth interviews to better understand the kinds of academic experiences and knowledge they both bring to, and receive from their program. Second, we aim to analyse the data through the lens of cognitive apprenticeship to help us better understand the individual trajectories of students in the thesis portion of their programs. By so doing, this research will contribute both theoretically and practically to our understanding of student experience of the thesis process in online doctoral programs. In particular, we conclude that there is a lack of knowledge and frameworks for how to design online/distance post-graduate programmes that best support the cognitive apprenticeship model. We suggest a shift in the research agenda on this issue:  Perhaps, the first step towards a more effective direction is to focus less on quantitative measures for success, like enrolment statistics or graduation rate but rather to employ qualitative judgements for the evolution of the post-graduate experience. What might be the guidelines for such qualitative judgments? The answer may lie within the principles of Networked Learning: knowledge is not confined to an individual; rather, it is distributed across individuals within the environment. That is, learning is not an in-the-head phenomenon but a matter of engagement with, participation in, and membership to a community. We argue that it is through this notion of learning that we may develop a more effective framework to reconceptualise the theory and practice of online/distance post-graduate education within the cognitive apprenticeship model of learning.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:10pm - 12:20pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Socialization, Cognitive Apprenticeship, Online Doctoral Students, Online Doctoral Programs, Community of Practice, Legitimate Peripheral Participation

12:15pm

Networked mentoring: a natural extension of self-directed learning
The primary responsibility of tertiary institutions is to prepare students in such a way that they enact authentic, effective and evolving practices throughout their careers.  To achieve this, teaching and learning, including teacher education, have changed in recent years.  21st Century pedagogies are increasingly premised on principles of personalised learning that occur with others and in context; evolving understandings of inclusion and diversity; and a culture of self-directed, inquiry-based and lifelong learning (Bolstad et al., 2012). What counts as knowledge has shifted to encompass the collective views, intuitions and beliefs of participants (Dede, 2008, in Li, 2012).  In keeping with these changes, there is never ‘one right answer’, and an increased need to co-author understandings with others._x000D_ Models of supervision have not kept pace with networked approaches to learning, and traditional models persist.  Professional supervision continues to be framed as a dyadic interaction, usually conducted face-to-face by one expert and one novice.  The present study acknowledges the place of traditional supervision, but argues that networked learning begets a framework for networked mentoring.  Networked mentoring supports professionals in considering the learning and support they both give and receive at each layer of their ecology.  Learning is thus seen as “the product of educational self-organisation. If you allow the educational process to self-organise, then learning emerges.  It's not about making learning happen; it's about letting it happen." (Mitra, 2013, 16:32)._x000D_ In contrast with traditional approaches to mentoring, networked mentoring positions each teacher at the center of their ecology, intentionally and spontaneously recognising opportunities for learning with, from and about others.  Teachers are empowered as the people best placed to solve their own problems and identify their own solutions in bespoke and networked ways.  The role of the mentor shifts to supporting others to identify, cultivate and sustain their existing and potential networks: their sources of learning on- and off- line, in and out of their formal learning environments. _x000D_ The focus of this paper is research conducted on networked mentoring within one postgraduate programme in which teachers are encouraged and supported to take charge of their learning and then their networks of support.  Key principles and pedagogies within the programme are outlined, to set the stage for the study of networked mentoring.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:15pm - 12:25pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words supervision, mentoring, networked learning

12:15pm

Makerspaces as complex sociomaterial assemblages: Is networking the key factor?
The emergence of makerspaces is an outgrowth of our current educational and technological era. While making is not new, networking capabilities has made it relatively easy to locate materials, knowledge, procedures, and expertise. Through technologies that are now affordable to consumers, there is a folding of human activity, digital, and material; that is, these practices, previously viewed as separate phenomena or separate regions of activity, blend (Mol & Law, 1994). Physical computing and 3D printing are becoming part of our practice. We can combine electronic, programmable circuitry into traditional crafts such as sewing or origami. Makerspaces are difficult to define because each one is unique, fitting on a continuum of formal to informal and offering different levels of learner/participant control. For example, in some makerspaces facilitators explicitly guide projects; other makerspaces may be gatherings of individuals working on different projects without any discernible leadership. Gatherings may be physical, virtual, or both. The projects, people, and problems may lead to differing degrees of collaboration, sharing and problem solving. We argue that the activities that occur at a given makerspace emerge from the unique characteristics of the space, participants, materials, and networking practices. From a sociomaterial perspective, makerspaces may be viewed as complex assemblages in which the human, digital, and physical are highly entangled. In this paper, we describe a single phase of a larger research project examining the experiences of makerspace facilitators. Our main goal in this phase of the research was to examine the extent to which curating, creating, relating, and networking, as per the makerspace activity (MAP) diagram (Figure 1), are part of the makerspace assemblages described to us by our study participants. For this research, we conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 makerspace facilitators. The participants included teachers, librarians, school technology consultants, and makerspace club members. Our first pass at coding the transcripts resulted in a significant number of codes emerging in the relate category in comparison to the create, curate, and networking categories. This result led us to question the centrality of networking and whether or not relating should be considered the central characteristic of makerspace assemblages. We conclude that networking, while less prevalent in the transcripts (i.e., less salient to our interview participants), remains a significant characteristic. However, we offer a revised version of the MAP diagram in order to recognize the significance of relational learning.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:15pm - 12:25pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Makerspace, sociomaterial, networked learning, assemblages, relational learning

12:15pm

Transforming professional learning through personal learning networks
For school teachers, effective, ongoing professional learning is essential, amid constant change, increasing complexity and accountability requirements in education. Traditional models of professional development are often discrete events, disconnected from practice and of limited impact. The literature suggests teacher agency, collaboration and active participation may create enduring changes in practice, yet despite these findings, there continues to be a disparity between what is known to be effective, and what is experienced by teachers (Edge, Reynolds, & O'Toole, 2015; Webster-Wright, 2009). This paper presents research investigating how personal learning networks (PLNs) may offer teachers self-directed, accessible and participatory learning opportunities, that meet diverse professional needs._x000D_ _x000D_ Anecdotal evidence and professional literature describing the nature of PLNs is quite extensive (Nussbaum-Beach, 2013; Warlick, 2009a), however few empirical studies investigate the experience of teachers who engage with PLNs for professional learning. One exception is a recent study, exploring teachers’ interactions through PLNs (Trust, Krutka, & Carpenter, 2016). Trust et al. (2016) reveal the potential for the dynamic and diverse nature of PLNs to meet the wide-ranging needs of teachers seeking professional learning, and their findings provide insight for my own research. However, a significant knowledge gap remains, associated with the variety and depth of learning experiences made possible when teachers blend collective participation, a connected learning approach and the affordances of social software. My research addresses this important aspect of professional learning through PLNs._x000D_ _x000D_ This paper introduces my research and presents preliminary findings. The aim of my doctoral study is to use a qualitative case study approach to investigate the experiences of teachers who have developed PLNs to enhance their professional learning. The research is informed by networked learning theory, connectivism and connected learning. The findings will contribute to an evidence base which will be useful for researchers and practitioners, and I intend to use these findings to underpin the future development of a conceptual model of innovative professional learning support. I envisage that this model will provide a framework to enable teachers to move from comparative isolation, to become connected teachers. I anticipate that when completed, this research will contribute to theory and practice of professional learning, and empower teachers to venture beyond the traditional professional development models.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:15pm - 12:25pm
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Personal Learning Networks, Professional Learning, Teachers, Qualitative case study

12:25pm

Networked Learning: Theorising a ‘Manager’ Capability
Networked learning (NL) is concerned with how students learn using connections enabled by IT: connections with other learners, with teachers and with resources.  In contrast to school or university education, there is no place in the current conceptual model of NL for an administration or management function.  This may be demonstrated by looking at the proceedings of the Networked Learning Conference.  The aim of this paper is to develop the conceptual model of NL by proposing a 'manager' capability.  The method consists of critical discourse analysis of a sample of the Conference proceedings to gain a better understanding of the problem.  This is followed by a pragmatic exercise in which suitable concepts from other relevant disciplines are identified, assessed and added to the NL conceptual model.  The most likely explanation for the gap in the theory is the collective ontological stance of the NL research community. 

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:25pm - 12:35pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words networked learning, management, managerialism

12:25pm

Project Pulse: co-designing the ‘smart’ campus with Internet of (teaching and learning) Things
This short paper describes a research project which aims to co-design prototype Internet of Things (IoT) technologies with staff and students at a higher education institution in the UK. However, rather than adopting a technical approach, which would perceive devices simply as ‘problem solving’ instruments, this project seeks to engage with critical approaches to IoT through the use of speculative methods (Ross 2016), such as ‘design fictions’ and ‘objects-to-think-with’. This approach is intended to surface crucial conceptual and ethical issues for education, such as the radical intensification of digital networks potentially engendered by this technology, and the prospect of increasing surveillance and diminishing privacy in an era of ubiquitous connection. These are questions too often overlooked in the habitual forecasting and advocacy of ‘new’ educational technology, but also in the engrained approaches to ‘solutionist’ (Morozov 2013) technology design. This paper will outline the two initial stages of this ongoing project: firstly, the development of preliminary IoT provocations; and secondly, the outcomes from co-design workshops with staff and students. The preliminary IoT devices include: campus motion and sound-level sensors; live public PC login feeds from across the campus; collated social media feeds from distance students; wearable smart watches configured to receive feed data; a smart phone app with interactive functions that can respond to feed notifications; and a web-based interface to visualise the range of data feeds. These devices were produced to demonstrate specific, and provocative, educational applications of IoT technologies, and to encourage responses from workshop participants. The second stage will describe outcomes from two co-design workshops: the first with campus-based and distance students; and the second with teaching staff at the institution in question (scheduled for November 2017). Grounded in the themes of ‘presence’, ‘community’, and ‘surveillance’, these workshops are designed to elicit critical responses to IoT technologies in higher education through the development of speculative designs that 1) enact key issues for students and teachers by modelling practice, and 2) offer creative alternatives to established design cultures by resisting, and obfuscating (Brunton & Nissenbaum 2013) the drive for ‘big data’ collection and its promoted efficiency gains. Drawing on these designs, this paper will conclude with, not only the key challenges that students and teachers perceive in the networked futures of higher education, but also creative visions for alternative technologies that can approximate new ways of connecting the humans and ‘things’ involved in education.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:25pm - 12:35pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Internet of Things, IoT, speculative methods, design fictions, surveillance, ethics

12:25pm

Critical Learning in the on-line classroom: An action learning approach to instructor development
Teaching in an online classroom is often new to university teachers which highlights the importance of training and development for faculty in on-line instruction in order to realise the promise of this burgeoning form of delivery. However, current research that examines formal training initiatives offered by universities tends to promote an ‘instrumental’ understanding of online facilitation and teaching. We argue that this promotes a narrow and mechanistic view, reducing successful online teaching to the mere acquisition of a set of technical competencies alongside the mastery of theoretical concepts and models of online learning. Networked learning which emphasises relational and interactional aspects of the online classroom, suggests that it is also important to recognize that teachers play a core role in helping students on their journeys to becoming critically reflective practitioners. From this perspective, facilitating learning in an online environment is not an emotion and value free task for which a set of skills can be easily learnt and later applied. Instead, it suggests the importance of dialogical approaches which pay attention to issues of power, voice, access and inclusion as well as the emotional dynamics which pervade the classroom. This then, unlike dominant forms of university training initiatives, depicts online teaching as a practice with its own ethical values and problematic issues in supporting online students' critical learning. While the argument that teaching online requires changes to conventional teaching approaches is not new, there is a dearth of research on instructors' perspectives on promoting critical learning in classroom relational dialogue. Against this background, and recognising the challenges of advancing critical pedagogies in general, this proposal explores the novel use of an action learning approach to online instructor development in the context of two management education programmes. Action learning, by emphasising learning by doing, represents one of the most commonly used forms of experiential learning. We suggest that the use of action learning sets offers novice instructors the opportunity to consider frequently taken-for-granted aspects of their practice such as the emotions and politics so crucial to promoting critical forms of learning and so facilitating students' journeys towards becoming critically reflective practitioners.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:25pm - 12:35pm
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Online teaching, Instructor development, Networked learning, Critical teaching pedagogy, Action learning, Online MBA

12:35pm

From Not-working to Node-working: Designing a Professional Learning Network
The space and pace of learning is changing.  Traditional professional learning and development courses – with defined content in a set place and time – are arguably not working for many, as they are linked to outmoded approaches to learning. As societies have evolved from an industrial, to information and then social-age, we have shifted our understandings of learning and teaching. This shift is from disseminating information in formal institutions, towards open access to knowledge via the web. Current notions appreciate that learning is continual through our interconnections with others, as we co-create, communicate and collaborate. The shifts to conceptualising learning as open, continuous and social has a flow on effect of disrupting how we conceptualise professional identity development, and ongoing professional learning. Professional learning increasingly involves co-constructing knowledge with others in learning networks across different contexts and time. New technologies such as digital badging and ePortfolios afford opportunities to make learning more visible, and allow learners to collect evidence of their learning in network, which can be seen as learning nodes. These nodes can be acknowledged as evidence of ongoing professional learning and credentialed as such. Linking learning nodes within and across related networks enables mapping and integrating learning that is both personalised and social, informal and formal, as well as open and accredited. This short paper outlines a new professional learning initiative being introduced in New Zealand that is designed around networking and ‘node-working’. The initiative is for Special Education Needs Coordinators (SENCo), teachers who provide learning support to include all students in school.  The professional network for SENCos consists of four learning hubs. Hub one is an open network where SENCos connect and collaborate with each other, face-to-face and online, regionally and nationally. In Hub two SENCos can subscribe to a professional network and join journal clubs, collaborative research projects, webinars, and share evidence-based practice. Hub three uses digital badging to recognise the personalised and collaborative learning that occurs in Hubs one and two, thus creating learning nodes as markers for credentialing learning across the network. Hub four allows for these learning nodes to be mapped within a professional e-portfolio, as part of a formal qualification. The research behind this initiative investigates the effectiveness of networked nodes of learning and the potential it offers to revision professional learning and identity development.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:35pm - 12:45pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Networked learning, professional learning, communities of practice, digital badging, ePortfolios

12:35pm

Teachers’ beliefs about professional development and the use of collaborative online tools in higher educational settings
Teaching in higher education beyond the boundaries of face-to-face education is an evolving practice including the integration of various technologies to support collaboration between learners and teachers. From a historical perspective the integration of such technologies in this practice has afforded different time- and location-related conditions for collaboration. This development has brought new conditions for the practice of teaching in higher education. From being a practice mainly located at the university, teaching is possible to occur elsewhere; e.g., on the move, or from the home setting. It has paved the way to introduce so called blended learning practices of teaching in higher education. Such practice has been an emerging trend in the 21st century with an overall impact on the design of university courses. Applications, devices and networks that initially were used in experimental distance education have later become natural parts of mainstream education, with blended learning as a standard concept in higher education. The rich plethora of information and communication technologies applied as tools to mediate learning and support teaching have created a need for teachers’ professional development. The aim of this study is to present and discuss university teachers’ perceptions and beliefs about how the supplementary training should be organised. Data were gathered by semi-structured interviews at a department for Computer and System Science where all seven interviewees teach in blended synchronous educational settings. The empirical material were analysed inductively by applying a thematic analysis method. Findings show that all courses have a basic common toolbox as well as an extended specific toolbox that both are continuously changing. This can be stressful and the formal teacher professional development is far from satisfying. Teachers cope with problems by consulting the collegium, a peer group where colleagues share experiences and assist each other in problem solving. Despite the constant pressure many teachers have creative ideas for a further development of the blended synchronous learning concept. Many of the teachers in this study see the continual attempts to implement these tools and experimenting with these tools in their teaching as possibilities in their teaching as well as a source of professional development.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:35pm - 12:45pm
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words blended synchronous learning, collegial learning, online collaboration, teachers’ beliefs, teacher professional development

12:45pm

Lunch
Tuesday May 15, 2018 12:45pm - 1:45pm
Centrum Hall Hotel Dubrovnik, Zagreb

1:45pm

Second Plenary - Wikilearning and Postdigital Critical Pedagogy
In my presentation I introduce the concept of wikilearning as a means of self-directed and collectively organized mass communication and the idea of the communist Internet as an end of postdigital critical pedagogy. I argue that by using digital tools such as wikis, crowd-sourced and editable platforms in the Internet, people are becoming critically aware of the possibilities of autonomous horizontal communication and learning in the digital networks, and are able to use those possibilities effectively for the common good, and eventually overcoming the exploitative capitalist condition of life.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 1:45pm - 2:45pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

2:45pm

Refreshments
Tuesday May 15, 2018 2:45pm - 3:15pm
Ban Jelacic Reception Hall Hotel Dubrovnik, Zagreb

3:15pm

Stewarding and power in networked learning
A study is conducted of twenty groups, of 5-7 learners each, who are studying on a postgraduate course unit oriented toward development of professional practice in the field of educational technology. On the unit, students are assessed through their contributions to online discussion boards in which their groups are engaged in learning tasks that increase in complexity over the course and require them to make critical judgments about a range of informational and technological resources that can help the group meet its shared learning needs. Through the accumulation of these judgments, the group stewards its own digital habitat (Wenger et al 2009), modifying and enhancing the set of resources that the tutor provides to each group at the start of the course unit. The study investigates how this process draws on the power that flows in different ways through the course environment. Students discipline themselves and each other to conform to practices that they perceive as being those rewarded by the tutor, but they also resist this institutional power and authority when they introduce new resources and practices. The study shows how practices form at the very earliest stages of the formation of a community of practce, and bring with them a proto-hierarchy that supports the more complex information tasks but also introduces differentiation into the community. Visibility and scrutiny of the emerging practices and proto-hierarchy are what help the environment meet its learning needs and give students an experience of variation in power and authority that helps them develop informational practices in ways that are relevant to later work in professional settings.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 3:15pm - 3:40pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words communities of practice, stewarding, digital habitat, groups, online discussions, learning

3:15pm

A ‘Social Identity Approach’ as a Theory for the Design of Learning with Educational Technology: The Case of Clickers
This article explores learning design initially focusing upon clickers, a polling technology used largely in the classroom. We develop that to consider learning design focused at the level of the whole-group. We then apply this to education technologies in general. One distinctive contribution made here is to conceptualise clickers as a technology for groups to work as a group (collectively). To explore this, we consider two popular models for using clickers. One of these is Peer Instruction (Mazur) which is by far the most used and well-known model. The other is SharedThinking (Bowskill) which is a more recent addition. We go on from there to explore group-relevant theory and seek to widen this to consider theory for learning design using many technologies. Clickers are an under-theorised set of technologies and here is our second distinctive contribution in this paper. Researchers have called for ‘empirical work to develop theory’ (Boscardin and Penuel, 2012) for this technology. An additional concern is that “existing research does not connect to larger research on education or psychology” (Penuel, Roschelle et al, 2004). We explore the possibility of a social identity approach (Bliuc et al., 2011, Haslam, 2004) as a theoretical tool for learning design in ways which might address these concerns. We suggest learning design may benefit from a focus on the group-level of thinking as part of a technology-supported identity-mediated practice. Interestingly, other researchers have argued for different mediators of learning to be considered when designing pedagogical practice. Technology and networks (Siemens, 2005), language (Wertsch, 1980, Vygotsky, 1978), activities and tools (Engeström, 2007) and communities (Wenger, 1998, Lave and Wenger, 1991, Roschelle et al., 2004) have all been used to inform pedagogy. This paper proposes the addition of ‘identity-mediated group learning’ (Bowskill, 2017b) in which the situated group-identity provides the basis for development using a social identity approach. Finally, one researcher describes the use of clickers as having a ‘catalytic’ effect (Draper, 2009). Another notes the ‘sense of community’ as an affective outcome arising from the use of this technology (Simon et al., 2013). In this paper, the suggestion is the ‘catalytic’ effect may be the moment of social identification when the group is made salient and deindividuation occurs. From this, we affirm the view elsewhere in the literature that ‘reference to peers has more influence than reference to facts’ (Goldstein et al., 2008).


Tuesday May 15, 2018 3:15pm - 3:40pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words social identity, clickers, learning design, technology, pedagogy, learning theory

3:15pm

Workshop 6 - Withdrawn from Programme
Tuesday May 15, 2018 3:15pm - 5:00pm
Ban Frankopan Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

3:15pm

Workshop 7 - Leadership in Learning Networks: how can conveners use networked learning perspectives in convening people and learning networks?
Intended Audience People who are interested in the way leadership can be used for learning networks. Workshop Description In this workshop we introduce the social discipline of learning, we investigate the relational part of learning networks and in that light want to discuss the way conveners can play a role in improving these learning networks. We are especially interested in the way networked learning can be used for convening learning networks. We will present cases of recent research we performed or are performing on influences of elements of learning networks, especially the common knowledge agenda and the identity of the network. Next to that we will present research we performed and are performing on the role conveners play in these networks. Participant Engagement It will be an interactive workshop in which questions will be addressed. In the workshop we will work as a learning network in which we develop a collaborative mind map about the role and ways of working of a convener. Participant Outcomes Participants will leave the workshop with ideas on how to convene a learning network and what role networked learning can play in this in an effective way. It will result in a mindmap that participants can take with them.

Speakers
avatar for Sebo Boerma

Sebo Boerma

Owner, .bos ontwikkeling in organisatie
PhD student on informal learning and the relationship with organisational agility. Working as a consultant on learning in organisations. Especially interesten in learning in networks.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 3:15pm - 5:00pm
Ban Mažuranić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

3:40pm

Online knowledge construction in networked learning communities
Networked Learning Communities (NLCs) comprise individuals from different schools or organisations collaborating with one another in purposeful and sustained professional development (Jackson & Temperley, 2007).  Knowledge construction is central to the work of NLCs as networked learning entails the construction of new knowledge by tapping members’ personal practitioner knowledge and the public knowledge base.  In Singapore, some NLCs sustain their professional learning through online interactions in collaboration groups within "One Portal All Learners (OPAL)", a learning and content management system developed by the Ministry of Education (MOE).  This paper outlines a project that studied knowledge construction within 10 OPAL collaboration groups created by NLCs (“ONLCs”), the roles adopted by the members, and the factors that influenced members' participation in knowledge construction within the ONLCs.  According to the Interaction Analysis Model (IAM) by Gunawardena, Lowe, and Anderson (1997), knowledge construction in online collaborative environments progresses over five levels: (a) sharing and comparing of information; (b) discovery and exploration of dissonance or inconsistency among ideas; (c) negotiation of meaning; (d) testing and modification; and (e) application of newly-constructed meaning.  Findings revealed that the majority of the online knowledge constructions were at the level of sharing and comparing of information.  Six possible factors that influenced members' engagement in knowledge construction in the ONLCs were identified through focus group discussions.  The factors identified were (a) a structured approach for enacting NLCs, (b) organisational support, (c) a conducive environment that enables trust to be built among members, (d) shared ownership among members, (e) a culture of sharing that prioritises higher levels of knowledge construction, and (f) OPAL as an enabler.  Using findings from the study and from literature, an implementation framework was developed to promote knowledge construction in ONLCs.  The implementation framework was field-tested by four NLCs and then refined based on feedback gathered.  The feedback gathered on the implementation framework was generally positive and participants found it to be comprehensive, although many felt that the efficacy of the implementation framework to support online knowledge construction may be limited by the affordances of the online collaborative workspace being used.  However, the key to raising the level of knowledge construction could lie in nurturing a conducive environment and a culture of sharing, and fostering shared ownership.  These three factors can work together to shape the dynamics within the NLC, to help members recognise the importance of co-owning and co-leading the NLC's professional learning.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 3:40pm - 4:05pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Networked Learning Community, Knowledge Construction, Online Collaborative Environment, Teacher Professional Learning

3:40pm

Exploring the geographies of academic social network sites from a socio-technical perspective: an investigation of scientific literature in Spanish
Academic social network sites (ASNS) like ResearchGate and Academia.edu can be analysed as techno-cultural systems through which researchers perform a number of tasks and roles that can be collectively defined as digital scholarship. This study sets out to map empirical Spanish-language research studies on the use of ResearchGate and Academia.edu among scholarly communities. The aim is to verify possible research gaps regarding shared scholarly knowledge and networked learning supported by ASNS. The study is based on a theoretical framework which treats ASNS as networked socio-technical systems that encompass systemic dimensions and individual usage as strictly intertwined elements influencing each other. This occurs at three levels: 1) the socio-economic level, which includes components like ownership, governance, and business model; 2) the techno-cultural level, which includes components associated to technology, user/usage, and content; and 3) the networked-scholar level, which includes components related to networking, knowledge sharing and identity. The research reported here is an extension of a previous study of English-language scientific literature which was carried out with the same methods. The corpus of the study was collected from a search of leading databases of international scientific literature (Web of Science, Scopus and a number of Ibero-American scientific databases). The search yielded 12 papers, which were selected according to a set of criteria and analysed in terms of components of the aforementioned three-level framework. The results show that ResearchGate is attracting greater attention, with a particularly high proportion of studies dedicated to social science areas like library and information sciences and communication science. Analysis at the networked scholar level, encompassing forms through which scholars build their identities and reputation in social spaces, revealed that this was underused. The results highlight a need for more specific studies on open and distributed knowledge exchange generated in ASNS from a networked learning perspective, including both individual and collective scholarly practices. Moreover, increased use of qualitative methods could contribute to shed light on new practices among scholars for building reputation and professional identity.

Speakers
avatar for Stefania Manca

Stefania Manca

Researcher, Institute of Educational Technology, National Research Council of Italy


Tuesday May 15, 2018 3:40pm - 4:05pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Academic social network sites, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, Socio-technical system, Scholarly communication, Spanish-language scientific literature

4:05pm

Everyone already has their community beyond the screen: Reconceptualising learning and expanding boundaries
Under a prominent recent regime of online education, often represented in the scholarship as a “social constructive learning paradigm”, learning is defined as a social practice that involves a group of students actively participating in collaborative knowledge construction processes. Pedagogical theories and strategies developed and utilised in that regime focus extensively on enabling student-to-student interaction and building communities of learners in online learning environments. In this context, where the notions of “collaborative” learning and learning “community” have gained substantial legitimacy from relevant theoretical traditions, other beliefs about meaningful learning are likely to be harshly criticised or, at best, simply neglected. However, it is not at all difficult to notice a gap between the accepted theoretical ideas of effective online learning and actual pedagogical practices in most online education institutions. Here, I aim to reduce that theory-practice gap by reconceptualising online learning using a double-layered Community of Practice (CoP) model. That module conceptualises online learning as interlinked processes of participation and socialisation in multiple communities across internal and external or online and offline “layers” of learners’ lives. The model helps online course designers and instructors to expand the boundaries of their course environments or designs to reach out to students’ personal and professional lives and to make sense of online learning experiences that are shaped by their interactions with other members of different communities outside the course environments. Using data, three students’ narratives, collected from a series of case studies on learners’ learning experiences in three different types of online courses (or programmes), this article effectively demonstrates how difficult it is to develop a strong CoP nested and sustained within online learning environments, which usually have a close finish. The article further argues that it may be useful for instructional designers to expend their view on learning environment to include distance learners’ life situations beyond their computer screens. Everyone has their own community in which they naturally learn, develop, and live with other members outside the courses. Thus, rather than putting so much effort to form a community inside our learning environment, we may want to think about more effectively support our students to form a stronger and more sustainable community in their lives through being engaged in learning activities in our course.

Speakers

Tuesday May 15, 2018 4:05pm - 4:30pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Online Learning, Community of Practice, Double-layered CoP model, Online course design

4:05pm

Dashboard literacy: understanding students’ response to learning analytic dashboards
Dashboards are the graphical interface that manipulate and present data about students’ learning behaviours (attendance, visits to the library, attainment etc.). Although only a few UK HEIs have developed a dashboard for students, most other UK HEIs have an aspiration to develop their use (Sclater 2014). Hence it is timely and significant to understand the ways that students respond to seeing data presented to them in the form of a dashboard._x000D_ _x000D_ This paper discusses and conceptualises the findings from a small scale study, funded by Society for Research in Higher Education. The study involved twenty-four final year undergraduate students in a single faculty in a UK University. The study focussed on the ways that students interpret and respond to seeing data about their learning presented via a dashboard. Sutton’s (2012) three pillars of feedback literacy: knowing, becoming and acting, were employed to understand the potential of dashboards for supporting students’ motivation towards their learning._x000D_ _x000D_ The paper suggests that, similar to feedback literacy, there is a type of literacy associated with dashboards that has components of knowing, becoming and acting and that employing these concepts helps us to understand how students’ respond to dashboards. By identifying students' engagement with dashboards as a literacy practice rather than a technical skill or understanding, the paper argues that we need to focus on students' growing identity that is embedded into a sense of being and is individually experienced and constructed. Hence the notion of dashboard literacy suggests that institutions need to work with students to develop their personal and reflective processes to enhance the way that dashboards are interpreted. _x000D_ _x000D_ The paper provides evidence that students may be motivated by seeing their data presented in a dashboard format and this can lead to changes in behaviour which are likely to lead to improved student outcomes and attainment. It also illustrates how students’ engagement with dashboards is highly individual and dependent on their personal disposition and orientation to learning. Hence their use needs to be treated cautiously recognising the power that these tools have to shape impact on students' well-being alongside their potential._x000D_


Tuesday May 15, 2018 4:05pm - 4:30pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words dashboard, student identity, learning behaviours, learning analytics, feedback

4:30pm

Promoting agency and identity building in dialogic learning communities online
_x000D_ _x000D_ For several decades educational institutions and their educational designers have waited for a significant innovation and pedagogical breakthrough in digitally based teaching and learning (Bates, 2015; Bruce, 2016; Conole, 2013; Tait, 2013; Sorensen & Brooks, 2017). New innovative approaches and pedagogies were expected in design of teaching and learning; approaches which, methodologically, would acknowledge basic human qualities and inter-human co-existential virtues and functionalities. Such approaches, as e.g. dialogue, collaboration, communication, creativity, improvisation, may be viewed to be relevant to any topic addressed, as pertinent values for developing and empowering robust identities. However, as it stands, new and innovative pedagogical paradigms for teaching and learning seem to have stagnated. The authors of this paper make a plea for the use of fundamental human concepts, features and inter-human functionalities - such as e.g. a focus on concepts of relational agency, dialogue and dialogic, identity, which may produce very fruitful teaching and learning processes through restoring, implementing and operationalizing fundamental motivating principles ofdevelopment processes of the human nature._x000D_ _x000D_ _x000D_ _x000D_ _x000D_ This paper reports on an explorative study of the learning dialogue in an online module, one module of an online master’s part-time program in Ict and Learning. The philosophy behind the design and organization of the program is inspired from the Project Oriented Project Pedagogy (POPP) approach, introduced at Aalborg University (AAU) at its very birth in 1974. The paper focuses on the use, role, potential and implications for teaching and learning when using a digital dialogic learning pedagogy built on the basic principles of POPP and unfolding in virtual learning environments. Through the analytical lenses of the theoretical concepts such as “identity” and “agency”, the authors set out to explore the extent to which online dialogues and potentially identified signs of developed identity, and agency in learners, may promote inclusion and contribute as very important meta learning values for the cultivation of awareness in citizens in our future global society._x000D_ The analytical optic is formed from a perspective of some key concepts of theorists, such as the notion of “relational agency” by Edwards (2006 & 2007), the notion of “dialogic” by Wegerif (2007) and the idea of “co-creation” (Sanders, 2008). The methodological approach is inspired by the principles of Netnography[1] and is a continuation of the authors’ serious of earlier studies on inclusive online learning dialogues and their implications for learning in digital environments (e.g. Sorensen & Brooks, 2017)._x000D_ The findings of this study suggest that for networked learning of including quality, co-creation, identity and relational agency are important elements for learners to obtain and be exposed to. All of these concepts appear very close to the essential aspects of human nature._x000D_ _x000D_ _x000D_ [1] Netnography uses these conversations as data. It is an interpretive research method that adapts the traditional, in-personparticipant observationtechniques ofanthropologyto the study of interactions and experiences manifesting throughdigital communications(Kozinets, R. V, 2010)_x000D_ _x000D_ _x000D_ _x000D_ _x000D_


Tuesday May 15, 2018 4:30pm - 4:55pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Learning Design (LD), Digital Dialogue (DD), Inclusion, Collaborative Knowledge Building (CKB), Learning2learn (L2L); , Agency

4:30pm

Social media analytics dashboard for academics and the decision-making process: A systematic literature review
Our worlds have changed since the social media exploded, and it affects not only our social, everyday lives but also our academic endeavours. Now, academics can disseminate knowledge through social media platforms, created specifically for academics and for the public. Uses of social media are now analyzed for providing an overview of the impact of academic dissemination, might be termed as social media analytics for academics — a non-traditional statistical dashboard that include both citation impact metrics and webometrics of scientific publications. The analytics have potential to change the way researchers disseminate, choose study focus, research fields, and much more. Readers also could rely on the analytics in the selection process. However, along with the social media analytics, comes a need for new terminology and use of metrics to evaluate the impact of research articles. Online interaction metrics have evolved to become alternative bibliometric matrices, that view downloads, likes, shares, comments, and other similar online engagements as the indicators of impact. The impact evaluation no longer solely depends on citations, but on the various forms of engagement and activity surrounding an article. This systematic literature review attempts to uncover whether literature about dashboards on social media for academics exists. Also, whether any study has been conducted on the decision-making process that comes with the recent social media dashboards for academics. The literature review uncovered 11 texts of relevance to the topic, along with five pre-determined texts. In order to create a legible overview of the literature, a qualitative content analysis was conducted, coded with 21 themes, and merged into three categories: (1) Bibliometrics, social media analytics and alternative metrics for the reputation of academics, (2) Academics’ strategy for- and impact of dissemination and (3) Dashboard for Academics’ knowledge dissemination analytics. The study shows that no study exists about dashboards for social media for academics, nor is there a focus on the decision-making process. Thereby, a need to study dashboards on social media exist, because, not only will altmetrics on the dashboards provide authors with critical numerical information, but also create an opportunity for the readers to make decisions regarding academic work and academics. Authors will, at the same time, be able to make decisions on what to further investigate/study and how to make greater impact in the broader society than just readers of the bibliographic databases.


Tuesday May 15, 2018 4:30pm - 4:55pm
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Social media for academics, Social media analytics dashboard for academics, Alternative metrics, Altmetrics, Scientometric analysis, Bibliographic analysis

7:30pm

 
Wednesday, May 16
 

9:30am

Symposium 2 - Introduction - Networked learning & the challenges for Higher Education: Linking today with the future
Introduction
The possibility of connectivity that digital technologies and the Internet have brought for students and their peers, and for faculty and their colleagues, is analysed in this paper from 3 perspectives: Impact on knowledge access, impact on instructional design, impact on teaching and learning. Papers presented in this symposium suggest that digital technologies have contributed to the radical transformation of these areas, particularly in the last decade. An emphasis is made by the authors in this panel with regard to the importance of focusing on the role that networked learning plays when defining content, design, and learner-faculty interactions inside and outside the classroom.
Participants in the symposium will be invited to reflect on the research and policy analysis presented by the authors in the symposium and will be then invited to participate in the discussion by sharing their experiences on the topic. Paths for further examination will be discussed and a panorama for future exploration will be determined.

Speakers

Wednesday May 16, 2018 9:30am - 9:35am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

9:30am

Designing for Networked Learning in The Third Space
The focus of the argument in this paper is first situated in an allegory based on Van Gogh’s Expressionist masterpiece, The Yellow House, in that, our argument shares Van Gogh’s theme of looking for a home for a diverse community, engaged in a shared social movement, imagined/acted upon to evoke change. Our argument is fraught with commitments, investments, hopes, debates, rifts, and conflicts involved in the tentative, emergent nature associated with social movements. Within this diverse and contested context, networked learning praxis is set apart from mainstream e-learning and educational technology theories and practices. The problem of designing learning, in general, and designing for networked learning, in particular, is critically examined through a comparison of the projects, histories, and tenets of instructional design (ID) and learning design (LD). Associated notions of teacher-centred, learner-centred, and community/context-centred approaches to design are compared. Contrasts are drawn and commonalities are identified. The shared LD/ID claims that their projects are pedagogically neutral is interrogated. We then introduce Third Space theory as a way to open a dialogue between ID/LD proponents/researcher-practitioners. Third Space theory begins with abandoning aspirations for emergence of consensus from difference, arguably a practical stance to take when dealing with wide-ranging diversities across multicultural, interdisciplinary, international contexts. Having abandoned consensus, Third Space theory is directed toward ‘multilogues’ that promote boundary crossings and hybridisations, which can result in the emergence new “presences”: newly co-constructed ways to identify and accomplish shared goals. If we conceptualise The Third Space as, (Dare we suggest, an Expressionist social movement?), then based on historical examples of earlier social movements, it is relatively safe to suggest that this space too will likely be marked by misunderstandings and incommensurabilities. Third space ‘multilogues’ will involve participants sometimes talking ‘past each other’ rather than ‘with each other.’ We can expect substantive disagreements and retreats to previously held positions prior to arriving at places of mutual recognition, and perhaps even one or more forms of reconciliation. The paper concludes with an invitation for LDs and IDs to enter The Third Space with a view to finding varied, but sustainable, hybridised conceptualisations of design theories and practices that can contribute to designing future opportunities for networked learning across multicultural, multilinguistic, international, interdisciplinary context.

Speakers
DN

Dorothea Nelson

PhD Student/Research Assistant, University of Calgary


Wednesday May 16, 2018 9:30am - 9:55am
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words third space, instructional design, learning design

9:35am

Symposium 2, Paper 1 - Virtual networks and the new definition of Knowledge: Towards a policy analysis
The radical transformation of knowledge access and knowledge production for teaching and learning that higher education institutions around the world are currently experimenting due to the use of technologies and virtual networks, constitutes a platform from which to build new networked learning and new academic interactions. The possibility of instant access to multiple resources of information is transforming the way users around the world access, produce and learn knowledge. However, this significant transformation has not always been echoed by a formal policy agenda at the institutional level. There is still a big gap between technology applications in higher education, and the creation and application of policy strategies to enhance and to regulate these interactions. This paper explores the impact of the Internet in teaching and learning processes at the start of the 21st century and examines the opportunities to stimulate discussion towards policy creation. A discussion about Internet access and differences between Universities in Europe and Africa is introduced. The authors examine the connectivity between users, contents and technologies, and provide a platform for reflection from which to examine the role of the Internet and the creation of virtual environments as important participants of this transformation. Complex processes of knowledge access and knowledge transformation are explored in the framework of policy analysis within higher education institutions around the world.


Wednesday May 16, 2018 9:35am - 10:00am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

9:55am

Knowledge and learning in virtual communities of practice (VCoPs): theoretical underpinnings
The aim of the paper is to revisit the concepts of knowledge and learning in virtual communities of practice (VCoPs). Despite a great variety of approaches and successful examples of deployment of VCoPs, little research attention is paid to developing models or frameworks conceptualizing knowledge and learning in VCoPs. The review of the selected literature has enabled to propose a multi metaphorical framework of knowledge and a conceptual model of learning in VCoPs. The author uses a metaphoric approach to address the idea of paradigm shift and suggests a non-linear perspective on knowledge evolution affected by technological innovations. The multi metaphorical framework under consideration shows the shifts from behavioral learning to networked learning where VCoPs are located. The definition of VCoPs and their features are paid special attention to in the research. VCoPs are viewed from three overlapping dimensions: Community of practice, virtual domain of technology enhanced learning and discipline-based learning community of practice. Such a view represents a conceptual idea of discipline-based VCoPs which arises when three main components interplay: domain (virtual environment where teacher-student social interaction takes place); the community (the principles of apprenticeship as a learning model); the practice (developing the repertoire to solve problems within the discipline context). Also, the suggested multi metaphorical framework enables viewing learning within VCoP from knowledge- creation metaphor which leads to examination of learning from the perspectives of activity theory. Activity theory is used not as an analytical tool in the research but mainly as a descriptive approach to delineate learning within VCops as a technology mediated activity. The knowledge is constructed within the community, but the interaction and learning are mediated via digital artifacts. Applying principles of activity theory, VCoPs can be analyzed as complex systems where subjects interact with the community using technologies. Systems approach is applied to work out a logical model of learning activity in VCoPs consisting of axiological, cognitive, professional-educational, technological, communicative, reflexive components. The proposed model should be considered as a schematically descriptive model of learning within VCoPs because complex systems cannot be perceived using one approach due to their multidimensional and complex nature._x000D_ The paper concludes by the discussion of the findings and recommendations for further research. The topic is of interest because better understanding of the concepts of knowledge and subsystems of learning concept in the era of technologies is sure to enhance teaching practice._x000D_  

Speakers

Wednesday May 16, 2018 9:55am - 10:20am
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words community of practice, virtual community of practice, metaphoric approach, activty theory, concept of learning, concept of knowledge

10:00am

Symposium 2, Paper 2 - Applying Universal Design for Learning guidelines to a blended learning course for prospective teachers
Universal Design has been studied and applied in Education for some decades now, yet it seems still far from becoming a standard in instructional design practices. Teaching educators and prospective teachers how to make a curriculum accessible to students with different needs seems to be a priority for making instruction more and more accessible and inclusive is relevant in a Networked Learning perspective. The redesign of a blended learning course about Educational Technology to incorporate Universal Design principles is presented here. The participants, who were prospective teachers attending the fourth of a five-year graduate programme, were taught how to introduce Educational Technology in their lesson plans according to some basic principles of Universal Design, while the same principles were actually being used with them. Pre- and post-course survey data show an increase in various aspects, but mainly in the perceived self-efficacy in using Educational Technology, and in performance outcome expectations. The vast majority of participants also stated that the difficulty level of the course was not too distant from their confidence level. Some considerations are finally exposed, about the design challenges that are involved in universally designing a blended learning course.


Wednesday May 16, 2018 10:00am - 10:25am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

10:20am

Analysing learning designs of 'learning through practice' as Networked Learning
Our aim in this paper is to analyse a set of well-known pedagogical approaches based on 'learning through practice' by viewing them as forms of networked learning. Following earlier work by the second author, we understand networked learning as learners' connecting of contexts in which they participate and as their resituation of knowledge, perspectives, and ways of acting across these contexts (Dohn, 2014). Learning designs of 'learning through practice' are distinguished by engaging practices outside the formal educational system as ways of developing curricular understanding and, reciprocally, as providing grounds for concretisation of curricular content through its enactment in practice. By viewing these learning designs as networked learning we highlight their potential for supporting certain connection forms between learners' experiences in target practice and educational practice. In particular, we look at the learning designs of 1) case-based learning, 2) design-based learning, and 3) simulation-based learning. We understand a learning design in accordance with Mor, Mellar, Warburton, & Winters (2014) as an educational pattern that supports specific actions in typical situations and, in compact form, collects the central part of a practice that can be communicated to others (2014). We understand a learning design to have four primary dimensions: 1) purpose, 2) content, 3) methods, and 4) underlying learning-theoretical basis. The four dimensions reflect basic functions of an educational practice: its purpose (its why), its content (its what), its method (its how), and its theoretical basis (its reason for the why, what and how). We argue that case-based learning establishes a relationship of inquiry between learner and target practice with the aim to support the learners in gaining understanding through participating in a sense-making process. The relationship established in design-based learning is one of innovation with the aim to support learners in developing understanding of practice through changing it. Finally, in simulation-based learning, relationships of imitation of target practice and engagement in ‘as-if’ practice are established with the aim of supporting learners in developing situated skills and knowledge.


Wednesday May 16, 2018 10:20am - 10:45am
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words networked learning, learning design, case-based learning, design-based learning, simulation-based learning, connections between contexts

10:25am

Symposium 2, Paper 3 - The role of teachers in professional studies and perspectives on networked learning
This paper examines the roles of teachers in higher education with regard to networked learning. Based on the assumption that learning is a social endeavour that incorporates both individual learning and learning with and from others, learning requires a relation between the learner and the subject, a relation between the learner and others, and last but not least a relation between the learner and the teacher. While lots of attention has been put on learning not least from a social constructive view on how to establish a learning environment in order to support learning processes, the central role of teachers in this process has often been neglected. Starting from this perspective the paper presents findings from an explorative qualitative study on the roles of teachers in learning processes in the context of higher education, more precisely in professional studies in Germany. Based on the study's findings future perspectives for the roles of teachers in higher education with regard to networked learning are outlined.

Speakers

Wednesday May 16, 2018 10:25am - 10:50am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

10:45am

The Epistemic Practice of Networked Learning
This paper has two aims; first to understand how networked learning has developed as a field and educational approach in the last 20 years; and second to consider the contribution the Networked Learning Conference has had to the development of the field. To achieve this we conducted a survey of people who have regularly presented or published papers from the Networked Learning Conference (NLC) since its inception in 1998.  The purpose of the survey was to understand the role the conference has played for them in the development of their thinking and ideas over time, and what this means for the theory, pedagogy and practice of networked learning._x000D_ In order to provide a context in which to examine respondents’ experiences of networked learning, we situate the paper in the current definition of the term. Since the first conference in 1998, the definition of networked learning has come to be defined as involving the key characteristics of learning community; connections; reflexivity; criticality; collaboration; and relational dialogue._x000D_ Our survey involved sending an email to 30 NLC participants in which we asked them to respond to five questions about their experience of the conference. 21 responses were returned. In general, many people felt that networked learning gives a frame of reference where the conference enacts the values of networked learning as a research community. We thus argue in the paper that a closer examination of the NLC offers an interesting opportunity to re-evaluate key characteristics and values associated with networked learning, which informs us of networked learning as a social practice._x000D_ To achieve this, we focus in depth on four areas that figured particularly strongly in the analysis and which we believe are worthy of further discussion. They are critical space, community, scholarship, and developing practice. We found there was a degree of overlap and interaction between these areas, and that together these four areas constitute key aspects to the way way the networked learning conference 'institutionalises' networked learning as a practical accomplishment.


Wednesday May 16, 2018 10:45am - 11:10am
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb
  • Key Words Networked Learning, Learning Community, Criticality, Critical Spaces, Epistemic Practice

10:50am

Symposium 2 Plenary
Wednesday May 16, 2018 10:50am - 11:15am
Ban Zrinski Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

11:15am

Refreshments
Wednesday May 16, 2018 11:15am - 11:45am
Ban Jelacic Reception Hall Hotel Dubrovnik, Zagreb

11:45am

Interactive Plenary and Reflective Group Discussion
Wednesday May 16, 2018 11:45am - 12:45pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb

12:45pm

Close of Conference
Wednesday May 16, 2018 12:45pm - 1:00pm
Ban Jelačić Hotel Dubrovnic, Zagreb